Chapter 56: Care of Patients with Noninflammatory Intestinal Disorders Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 56: Care of Patients with Noninflammatory Intestinal Disorders
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. After teaching a client with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which menu selection indicates that the client correctly understands the dietary teaching?
a. Ham sandwich on white bread, cup of applesauce, glass of diet cola
b. Broiled chicken with brown rice, steamed broccoli, glass of apple juice
c. Grilled cheese sandwich, small banana, cup of hot tea with lemon
d. Baked tilapia, fresh green beans, cup of coffee with low-fat milk
ANS: B
Clients with IBS are advised to eat a high-fiber diet (30 to 40 g/day), with 8 to 10 cups of liquid daily. Chicken with brown rice, broccoli, and apple juice has the highest fiber content. They should avoid alcohol, caffeine, and other gastric irritants.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1145
KEY: Irritable bowel| nutritional requirements
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

2. A nurse assesses a client who is prescribed alosetron (Lotronex). Which assessment question should the nurse ask this client?
a. Have you been experiencing any constipation?
b. Are you eating a diet high in fiber and fluids?
c. Do you have a history of high blood pressure?
d. What vitamins and supplements are you taking?
ANS: A
Ischemic colitis is a life-threatening complication of alosetron. The nurse should assess the client for constipation. The other questions do not identify complications related to alosetron.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1146
KEY: Medications| adverse effects
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

3. After teaching a client who has a femoral hernia, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement indicates the client needs additional teaching related to the proper use of a truss?
a. I will put on the truss before I go to bed each night.
b. Ill put some powder under the truss to avoid skin irritation.
c. The truss will help my hernia because I cant have surgery.
d. If I have abdominal pain, Ill let my health care provider know right away.
ANS: A
The client should be instructed to apply the truss before arising, not before going to bed at night. The other statements show an accurate understanding of using a truss.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1147 KEY: Herniation
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. A nurse assesses a client who is recovering from a hemorrhoidectomy that was done the day before. The nurse notes that the client has lower abdominal distention accompanied by dullness to percussion over the distended area. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Assess the clients heart rate and blood pressure.
b. Determine when the client last voided.
c. Ask if the client is experiencing flatus.
d. Auscultate all quadrants of the clients abdomen.
ANS: B
Assessment findings indicate that the client may have an over-full bladder. In the immediate postoperative period, the client may experience difficulty voiding due to urinary retention. The nurse should assess when the client last voided. The clients vital signs may be checked after the nurse determines the clients last void. Asking about flatus and auscultating bowel sounds are not related to a hemorrhoidectomy.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1165
KEY: Postoperative nursing| urinary retention
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. A nurse assesses clients at a community health center. Which client is at highest risk for the development of colorectal cancer?
a. A 37-year-old who drinks eight cups of coffee daily
b. A 44-year-old with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
c. A 60-year-old lawyer who works 65 hours per week
d. A 72-year-old who eats fast food frequently
ANS: D
Colon cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence increases rapidly with advancing age. Fast food tends to be high in fat and low in fiber, increasing the risk for colon cancer. Coffee intake, IBS, and a heavy workload do not increase the risk for colon cancer.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1149
KEY: Colorectal cancer| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

6. A nurse assessing a client with colorectal cancer auscultates high-pitched bowel sounds and notes the presence of visible peristaltic waves. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Ask if the client is experiencing pain in the right shoulder.
b. Perform a rectal examination and assess for polyps.
c. Contact the provider and recommend computed tomography.
d. Administer a laxative to increase bowel movement activity.
ANS: C
The presence of visible peristaltic waves, accompanied by high-pitched or tingling bowel sounds, is indicative of partial obstruction caused by the tumor. The nurse should contact the provider with these results and recommend a computed tomography scan for further diagnostic testing. This assessment finding is not associated with right shoulder pain; peritonitis and cholecystitis are associated with referred pain to the right shoulder. The registered nurse is not qualified to complete a rectal examination for polyps, and laxatives would not help this client.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1151
KEY: Colorectal cancer| intestinal obstruction
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

7. A nurse prepares a client for a colonoscopy scheduled for tomorrow. The client states, My doctor told me that the fecal occult blood test was negative for colon cancer. I dont think I need the colonoscopy and would like to cancel it. How should the nurse respond?
a. Your doctor should not have given you that information prior to the colonoscopy.
b. The colonoscopy is required due to the high percentage of false negatives with the blood test.
c. A negative fecal occult blood test does not rule out the possibility of colon cancer.
d. I will contact your doctor so that you can discuss your concerns about the procedure.
ANS: C
A negative result from a fecal occult blood test does not completely rule out the possibility of colon cancer. To determine whether the client has colon cancer, a colonoscopy should be performed so the entire colon can be visualized and a tissue sample taken for biopsy. The client may want to speak with the provider, but the nurse should address the clients concerns prior to contacting the provider.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 1151
KEY: Colorectal cancer| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. A nurse cares for a client newly diagnosed with colon cancer who has become withdrawn from family members. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Contact the provider and recommend a psychiatric consult for the client.
b. Encourage the client to verbalize feelings about the diagnosis.
c. Provide education about new treatment options with successful outcomes.
d. Ask family and friends to visit the client and provide emotional support.
ANS: B
The nurse recognizes that the client may be expressing feelings of grief. The nurse should encourage the client to verbalize feelings and identify fears to move the client through the phases of the grief process. A psychiatric consult is not appropriate for the client. The nurse should not brush aside the clients feelings with discussions related to cancer prognosis and treatment. The nurse should not assume that the client desires family or friends to visit or provide emotional support.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1155
KEY: Colorectal cancer| coping MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

9. A nurse cares for a client with colon cancer who has a new colostomy. The client states, I think it would be helpful to talk with someone who has had a similar experience. How should the nurse respond?
a. I have a good friend with a colostomy who would be willing to talk with you.
b. The enterostomal therapist will be able to answer all of your questions.
c. I will make a referral to the United Ostomy Associations of America.
d. Youll find that most people with colostomies dont want to talk about them.
ANS: C
Nurses need to become familiar with community-based resources to better assist clients. The local chapter of the United Ostomy Associations of America has resources for clients and their families, including Ostomates (specially trained visitors who also have ostomies). The nurse should not suggest that the client speak with a personal contact of the nurse. Although the enterostomal therapist is an expert in ostomy care, talking with him or her is not the same as talking with someone who actually has had a colostomy. The nurse should not brush aside the clients request by saying that most people with colostomies do not want to talk about them. Many people are willing to share their ostomy experience in the hope of helping others.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1157
KEY: Colorectal cancer| ostomy care| coping| support
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

10. An emergency room nurse assesses a client after a motor vehicle crash and notes ecchymotic areas across the clients lower abdomen. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Measure the clients abdominal girth.
b. Assess for abdominal guarding or rigidity.
c. Check the clients hemoglobin and hematocrit.
d. Obtain the clients complete health history.
ANS: B
On noticing the ecchymotic areas, the nurse should check to see if abdominal guarding or rigidity is present, because this could indicate major organ injury. The nurse should then notify the provider. Measuring abdominal girth or obtaining a complete health history is not appropriate at this time. Laboratory test results can be checked after assessment for abdominal guarding or rigidity.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1162
KEY: Gastrointestinal trauma| hemorrhage
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

11. A nurse cares for a client who states, My husband is repulsed by my colostomy and refuses to be intimate with me. How should the nurse respond?
a. Lets talk to the ostomy nurse to help you and your husband work through this.
b. You could try to wear longer lingerie that will better hide the ostomy appliance.
c. You should empty the pouch first so it will be less noticeable for your husband.
d. If you are not careful, you can hurt the stoma if you engage in sexual activity.
ANS: A
The nurse should collaborate with the ostomy nurse to help the client and her husband work through intimacy issues. The nurse should not minimize the clients concern about her husband with ways to hide the ostomy. The client will not hurt the stoma by engaging in sexual activity.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1156
KEY: Ostomy care| support| coping MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

12. A nurse cares for a client who is recovering from a hemorrhoidectomy. The client states, I need to have a bowel movement. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Obtain a bedside commode for the client to use.
b. Stay with the client while providing privacy.
c. Make sure the call light is in reach to signal completion.
d. Gather supplies to collect a stool sample for the laboratory.
ANS: B
The first bowel movement after hemorrhoidectomy can be painful enough to induce syncope. The nurse should stay with the client. The nurse should instruct clients who are discharged the same day to have someone nearby when they have their first postoperative bowel movement. Making sure the call light is within reach is an important nursing action too, but it does not take priority over client safety. Obtaining a bedside commode and taking a stool sample are not needed in this situation.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1165
KEY: Postoperative care| syncope
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

13. An emergency room nurse cares for a client who has been shot in the abdomen and is hemorrhaging heavily. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Send a blood sample for a type and crossmatch.
b. Insert a large intravenous line for fluid resuscitation.
c. Obtain the heart rate and blood pressure.
d. Assess and maintain a patent airway.
ANS: D
All of the options are important nursing actions in the care of a trauma client. However, airway always comes first. The client must have a patent airway, or other interventions will not be helpful.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1162
KEY: GI trauma| emergency nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

14. A nurse assesses a client with a mechanical bowel obstruction who reports intermittent abdominal pain. An hour later the client reports constant abdominal pain. Which action should the nurse take next?
a. Administer intravenous opioid medications.
b. Position the client with knees to chest.
c. Insert a nasogastric tube for decompression.
d. Assess the clients bowel sounds.
ANS: D
A change in the nature and timing of abdominal pain in a client with a bowel obstruction can signal peritonitis or perforation. The nurse should immediately check for rebound tenderness and the absence of bowel sounds. The nurse should not medicate the client until the provider has been notified of the change in his or her condition. The nurse may help the client to the knee-chest position for comfort, but this is not the priority action. The nurse need not insert a nasogastric tube for decompression.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1157
KEY: Intestinal obstruction| pain management
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

15. A nurse assesses a client who is prescribed 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy intravenously for the treatment of colon cancer. Which assessment finding should alert the nurse to contact the health care provider?
a. White blood cell (WBC) count of 1500/mm3
b. Fatigue
c. Nausea and diarrhea
d. Mucositis and oral ulcers
ANS: A
Common side effects of 5-FU include fatigue, leukopenia, diarrhea, mucositis and mouth ulcers, and peripheral neuropathy. However, the clients WBC count is very low (normal range is 5000 to 10,000/mm3), so the provider should be notified. He or she may want to delay chemotherapy by a day or two. Certainly the client is at high risk for infection. The other assessment findings are consistent with common side effects of 5-FU that would not need to be reported immediately.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1151
KEY: Colorectal cancer| medications| adverse effects
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

16. A nurse cares for a client who had a colostomy placed in the ascending colon 2 weeks ago. The client states, The stool in my pouch is still liquid. How should the nurse respond?
a. The stool will always be liquid with this type of colostomy.
b. Eating additional fiber will bulk up your stool and decrease diarrhea.
c. Your stool will become firmer over the next couple of weeks.
d. This is abnormal. I will contact your health care provider.
ANS: A
The stool from an ascending colostomy can be expected to remain liquid because little large bowel is available to reabsorb the liquid from the stool. This finding is not abnormal. Liquid stool from an ascending colostomy will not become firmer with the addition of fiber to the clients diet or with the passage of time.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1151 KEY: Ostomy care
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

17. A nurse cares for a middle-aged male client who has irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The client states, I have changed my diet and take bulk-forming laxatives, but my symptoms have not gotten better. I heard about a drug called Amitiza. Do you think it might help? How should the nurse respond?
a. This drug is still in the research phase and is not available for public use yet.
b. Unfortunately, lubiprostone is approved only for use in women.
c. Lubiprostone works well. I will recommend this prescription to your provider.
d. This drug should not be used with bulk-forming laxatives.
ANS: B
Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is a new drug for IBS with constipation that works by simulating receptors in the intestines to increase fluid and promote bowel transit time. Lubiprostone is currently approved only for use in women. Trials with increased numbers of male participants are needed prior to Food and Drug Administration approval for men.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1146
KEY: Irritable bowel| medications MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

18. A nurse teaches a client who is recovering from a colon resection. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients plan of care?
a. You may experience nausea and vomiting for the first few weeks.
b. Carbonated beverages can help decrease acid reflux from anastomosis sites.
c. Take a stool softener to promote softer stools for ease of defecation.
d. You may return to your normal workout schedule, including weight lifting.
ANS: C
Clients recovering from a colon resection should take a stool softener as prescribed to keep stools a soft consistency for ease of passage. Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of intestinal obstruction and perforation and should be reported to the provider immediately. The client should be advised to avoid gas-producing foods and carbonated beverages, and avoid lifting heavy objects or straining on defecation.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1155
KEY: Colorectal cancer| postoperative nursing| bowel care
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

19. A nurse teaches a client who is at risk for colon cancer. Which dietary recommendation should the nurse teach this client?
a. Eat low-fiber and low-residual foods.
b. White rice and bread are easier to digest.
c. Add vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower to your new diet.
d. Foods high in animal fat help to protect the intestinal mucosa.
ANS: C
The client should be taught to modify his or her diet to decrease animal fat and refined carbohydrates. The client should also increase high-fiber foods and Brassica vegetables, including broccoli and cauliflower, which help to protect the intestinal mucosa from colon cancer.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1149
KEY: Colorectal cancer| nutritional requirements
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. A nurse cares for a client who has a new colostomy. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Empty the pouch frequently to remove excess gas collection.
b. Change the ostomy pouch and wafer every morning.
c. Allow the pouch to completely fill with stool prior to emptying it.
d. Use surgical tape to secure the pouch and prevent leakage.
ANS: A
The nurse should empty the new ostomy pouch frequently because of excess gas collection, and empty the pouch when it is one-third to one-half full of stool. The ostomy pouch does not need to be changed every morning. Ostomy wafers with paste should be used to secure and seal the ostomy appliance; surgical tape should not be used.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1154 KEY: Ostomy care
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

21. A nurse cares for a client who has a family history of colon cancer. The client states, My father and my brother had colon cancer. What is the chance that I will get cancer? How should the nurse respond?
a. If you eat a low-fat and low-fiber diet, your chances decrease significantly.
b. You are safe. This is an autosomal dominant disorder that skips generations.
c. Preemptive surgery and chemotherapy will remove cancer cells and prevent cancer.
d. You should have a colonoscopy more frequently to identify abnormal polyps early.
ANS: D
The nurse should encourage the client to have frequent colonoscopies to identify abnormal polyps and cancerous cells early. The abnormal gene associated with colon cancer is an autosomal dominant gene mutation that does not skip a generation and places the client at high risk for cancer. Changing the clients diet, preemptive chemotherapy, and removal of polyps will decrease the clients risk but will not prevent cancer. However, a client at risk for colon cancer should eat a low-fat and high-fiber diet.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1155
KEY: Colorectal cancer| genetics MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse inserts a nasogastric (NG) tube for an adult client who has a bowel obstruction. Which actions does the nurse perform correctly? (Select all that apply.)
a. Performs hand hygiene and positions the client in high-Fowlers position, with pillows behind the head and shoulders
b. Instructs the client to extend the neck against the pillow once the NG tube has reached the oropharynx
c. Checks for correct placement by checking the pH of the fluid aspirated from the tube
d. Secures the NG tube by taping it to the clients nose and pinning the end to the pillowcase
e. Connects the NG tube to intermittent medium suction with an anti-reflux valve on the air vent
ANS: A, C, E
The clients head should be flexed forward once the NG tube has reached the oropharynx. The NG tube should be secured to the clients gown, not to the pillowcase, because it could become dislodged easily. All the other actions are appropriate.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1159
KEY: Intestinal obstruction
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

2. After teaching a client who is recovering from a colon resection, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statements by the client indicate a correct understanding of the teaching? (Select all that apply.)
a. I must change the ostomy appliance daily and as needed.
b. I will use warm water and a soft washcloth to clean around the stoma.
c. I might start bicycling and swimming again once my incision has healed.
d. Cutting the flange will help it fit snugly around the stoma to avoid skin breakdown.
e. I will check the stoma regularly to make sure that it stays a deep red color.
f. I must avoid dairy products to reduce gas and odor in the pouch.
ANS: B, C, D
The ostomy appliance should be changed as needed when the adhesive begins to decrease, placing the appliance at risk of leaking. Changing the appliance daily can cause skin breakdown as the adhesive will still be secured to the clients skin. The client should avoid using soap to clean around the stoma because it might prevent effective adhesion of the ostomy appliance. The client should use warm water and a soft washcloth instead. The tissue of the stoma is very fragile, and scant bleeding may occur when the stoma is cleaned. The flange should be cut to fit snugly around the stoma to reduce contact between excretions and the clients skin. Exercise (other than some contact sports) is important for clients with an ostomy. The stoma should remain a soft pink color. A deep red or purple hue indicates ischemia and should be reported to the surgeon right away. Yogurt and buttermilk can help reduce gas in the pouch, so the client need not avoid dairy products.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1154
KEY: Colorectal cancer| postoperative care
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. A nurse assesses a client with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Which questions should the nurse include in this clients assessment? (Select all that apply.)
a. Which food types cause an exacerbation of symptoms?
b. Where is your pain and what does it feel like?
c. Have you lost a significant amount of weight lately?
d. Are your stools soft, watery, and black in color?
e. Do you experience nausea associated with defecation?
ANS: A, B, E
The nurse should ask the client about factors that may cause exacerbations of symptoms, including food, stress, and anxiety. The nurse should also assess the location, intensity, and quality of the clients pain, and nausea associated with defecation or meals. Clients who have IBS do not usually lose weight and stools are not black in color.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1145
KEY: Irritable bowel| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4. A nurse plans care for a client who is recovering from an inguinal hernia repair. Which interventions should the nurse include in this clients plan of care? (Select all that apply.)
a. Encouraging ambulation three times a day
b. Encouraging normal urination
c. Encouraging deep breathing and coughing
d. Providing ice bags and scrotal support
e. Forcibly reducing the hernia
ANS: A, B, D
Postoperative care for clients with an inguinal hernia includes all general postoperative care except coughing. The nurse should promote lung expansion by encouraging deep breathing and ambulation. The nurse should encourage normal urination, including allowing the client to stand, and should provide scrotal support and ice bags to prevent swelling. A hernia should never be forcibly reduced, and this procedure is not part of postoperative care.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1148
KEY: Herniation| postoperative care
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. A nurse cares for a client who has been diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction. Which assessment findings should the nurse correlate with this diagnosis? (Select all that apply.)
a. Serum potassium of 2.8 mEq/L
b. Loss of 15 pounds without dieting
c. Abdominal pain in upper quadrants
d. Low-pitched bowel sounds
e. Serum sodium of 121 mEq/L
ANS: A, C, E
Small bowel obstructions often lead to severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances. The client is hypokalemic (normal range is 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L) and hyponatremic (normal range is 136 to 145 mEq/L). Abdominal pain across the upper quadrants is associated with small bowel obstruction. Dramatic weight loss without dieting followed by bowel obstruction leads to the probable development of colon cancer. High-pitched sounds may be noted with small bowel obstructions.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1159
KEY: Intestinal obstruction| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

6. A nurse assesses a male client with an abdominal hernia. Which abdominal hernias are correctly paired with their physiologic processes? (Select all that apply.)
a. Indirect inguinal hernia An enlarged plug of fat eventually pulls the peritoneum and often the bladder into a sac
b. Femoral hernia A peritoneum sac pushes downward and may descend into the scrotum
c. Direct inguinal hernia A peritoneum sac passes through a weak point in the abdominal wall
d. Ventral hernia Results from inadequate healing of an incision
e. Incarcerated hernia Contents of the hernia sac cannot be reduced back into the abdominal cavity
ANS: C, D, E
A direct inguinal hernia occurs when a peritoneum sac passes through a weak point in the abdominal wall. A ventral hernia results from inadequate healing of an incision. An incarcerated hernia cannot be reduced or placed back into the abdominal cavity. An indirect inguinal hernia is a sac formed from the peritoneum that contains a portion of the intestine and pushes downward at an angle into the inguinal canal. An indirect inguinal hernia often descends into the scrotum. A femoral hernia protrudes through the femoral ring and, as the clot enlarges, pulls the peritoneum and often the urinary bladder into the sac.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1146 KEY: Herniation
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. A nurse plans care for a client who has chronic diarrhea. Which actions should the nurse include in this clients plan of care? (Select all that apply.)
a. Using premoistened disposable wipes for perineal care
b. Turning the client from right to left every 2 hours
c. Using an antibacterial soap to clean after each stool
d. Applying a barrier cream to the skin after cleaning
e. Keeping broken skin areas open to air to promote healing
ANS: A, B, D
The nurse should use premoistened disposable wipes instead of toilet paper for perineal care, or mild soap and warm water after each stool. Antibacterial soap would be too abrasive and damage good bacteria on the skin. The nurse should apply a thin layer of a medicated protective barrier after cleaning the skin. The client should be re-positioned frequently so that he or she is kept off the affected area, and open skin areas should be covered with DuoDerm or Tegaderm occlusive dressing to promote rapid healing.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1166 KEY: Bowel care
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

8. A nurse cares for a client who has a nasogastric (NG) tube. Which actions should the nurse take? (Select all that apply.)
a. Assess for proper placement of the tube every 4 hours.
b. Flush the tube with water every hour to ensure patency.
c. Secure the NG tube to the clients upper lip.
d. Disconnect suction when auscultating bowel peristalsis.
e. Monitor the clients skin around the tube site for irritation.
ANS: A, D, E
The nurse should assess for proper placement, tube patency, and output every 4 hours. The nurse should also monitor the skin around the tube for irritation and secure the tube to the clients nose. When auscultating bowel sounds for peristalsis, the nurse should disconnect suction.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1159 KEY: Drain
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

SHORT ANSWER

1. A nurse prepares to administer 12 mg/kg of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy intravenously to a client who has colon cancer. The client weights 132 lb. How many milligrams should the nurse administer? (Record your answer using a whole number.) _____ mg

ANS:
720 mg
132 lb = 60 kg.
60 kg 12 mg/kg = 720 mg.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1152 KEY: Medication safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

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