Chapter 58: Care of Patients with Liver Problems Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 58: Care of Patients with Liver Problems
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nurse obtains a clients health history at a community health clinic. Which statement alerts the nurse to provide health teaching to this client?
a. I drink two glasses of red wine each week.
b. I take a lot of Tylenol for my arthritis pain.
c. I have a cousin who died of liver cancer.
d. I got a hepatitis vaccine before traveling.
ANS: B
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage if taken in large amounts. Clients should be taught not to exceed 4000 mg/day of acetaminophen. The nurse should teach the client about this limitation and should explore other drug options with the client to manage his or her arthritis pain. Two glasses of wine each week, a cousin with liver cancer, and the hepatitis vaccine do not place the client at risk for a liver disorder, and therefore do not require any health teaching.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1202
KEY: Cirrhosis| acetaminophen| medication safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

2. A nurse cares for a client who has cirrhosis of the liver. Which action should the nurse take to decrease the presence of ascites?
a. Monitor intake and output.
b. Provide a low-sodium diet.
c. Increase oral fluid intake.
d. Weigh the client daily.
ANS: B
A low-sodium diet is one means of controlling abdominal fluid collection. Monitoring intake and output does not control fluid accumulation, nor does weighing the client. These interventions merely assess or monitor the situation. Increasing fluid intake would not be helpful.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1202
KEY: Cirrhosis| nutritional requirements
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. A nurse assesses a client who is recovering from a paracentesis 1 hour ago. Which assessment finding requires action by the nurse?
a. Urine output via indwelling urinary catheter is 20 mL/hr
b. Blood pressure increases from 110/58 to 120/62 mm Hg
c. Respiratory rate decreases from 18 to 14 breaths/min
d. A decrease in the clients weight by 6 kg
ANS: A
Rapid removal of ascetic fluid causes decreased abdominal pressure, which can contribute to hypovolemia. This can be manifested by a decrease in urine output to below 30 mL/hr. A slight increase in systolic blood pressure is insignificant. A decrease in respiratory rate indicates that breathing has been made easier by the procedure. The nurse would expect the clients weight to drop as fluid is removed. Six kilograms is less than 3 pounds and is expected.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1199
KEY: Hydration| hemodynamics| cirrhosis
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. A nurse cares for a client who is hemorrhaging from bleeding esophageal varices and has an esophagogastric tube. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Sedate the client to prevent tube dislodgement.
b. Maintain balloon pressure at 15 and 20 mm Hg.
c. Irrigate the gastric lumen with normal saline.
d. Assess the client for airway patency.
ANS: D
Maintaining airway patency is the primary nursing intervention for this client. The nurse suctions oral secretions to prevent aspiration and occlusion of the airway. The client usually is intubated and mechanically ventilated during this treatment. The client should be sedated, balloon pressure should be maintained between 15 and 20 mm Hg, and the lumen can be irrigated with saline or tap water. However, these are not a higher priority than airway patency.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1193
KEY: Hemorrhaging| respiratory distress/failure| cirrhosis
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. A nurse assesses a client who is prescribed an infusion of vasopressin (Pitressin) for bleeding esophageal varices. Which clinical manifestation should alert the nurse to a serious adverse effect?
a. Nausea and vomiting
b. Frontal headache
c. Vertigo and syncope
d. Mid-sternal chest pain
ANS: D
Mid-sternal chest pain is indicative of acute angina or myocardial infarction, which can be precipitated by vasopressin. Nausea and vomiting, headache, and vertigo and syncope are not side effects of vasopressin.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1200
KEY: Hemorrhaging| cirrhosis| vascular perfusion
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

6. A nurse cares for a client with hepatic portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). The client is thin and cachectic in appearance, and the family expresses distress that the client is receiving little dietary protein. How should the nurse respond?
a. A low-protein diet will help the liver rest and will restore liver function.
b. Less protein in the diet will help prevent confusion associated with liver failure.
c. Increasing dietary protein will help the client gain weight and muscle mass.
d. Low dietary protein is needed to prevent fluid from leaking into the abdomen.
ANS: B
A low-protein diet is ordered when serum ammonia levels increase and/or the client shows signs of PSE. A low-protein diet helps reduce excessive breakdown of protein into ammonia by intestinal bacteria. Encephalopathy is caused by excess ammonia. A low-protein diet has no impact on restoring liver function. Increasing the clients dietary protein will cause complications of liver failure and should not be suggested. Increased intravascular protein will help prevent ascites, but clients with liver failure are not able to effectively synthesize dietary protein.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1194
KEY: Cirrhosis| nutritional requirements| support
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

7. A nurse cares for a client who is prescribed lactulose (Heptalac). The client states, I do not want to take this medication because it causes diarrhea. How should the nurse respond?
a. Diarrhea is expected; thats how your body gets rid of ammonia.
b. You may take Kaopectate liquid daily for loose stools.
c. Do not take any more of the medication until your stools firm up.
d. We will need to send a stool specimen to the laboratory.
ANS: A
The purpose of administering lactulose to this client is to help ammonia leave the circulatory system through the colon. Lactulose draws water into the bowel with its high osmotic gradient, thereby producing a laxative effect and subsequently evacuating ammonia from the bowel. The client must understand that this is an expected and therapeutic effect for him or her to remain compliant. The nurse should not suggest administering anything that would decrease the excretion of ammonia or holding the medication. There is no need to send a stool specimen to the laboratory because diarrhea is the therapeutic response to this medication.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1201
KEY: Cirrhosis| medication| coping MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

8. After teaching a client who has been diagnosed with hepatitis A, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement by the client indicates a correct understanding of the teaching?
a. Some medications have been known to cause hepatitis A.
b. I may have been exposed when we ate shrimp last weekend.
c. I was infected with hepatitis A through a recent blood transfusion.
d. My infection with Epstein-Barr virus can co-infect me with hepatitis A.
ANS: B
The route of acquisition of hepatitis A infection is through close personal contact or ingestion of contaminated water or shellfish. Hepatitis A is not transmitted through medications, blood transfusions, or Epstein-Barr virus. Toxic and drug-induced hepatitis is caused from exposure to hepatotoxins, but this is not a form of hepatitis A. Hepatitis B can be spread through blood transfusions. Epstein-Barr virus causes a secondary infection that is not associated with hepatitis A.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1203
KEY: Hepatitis| infection control
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. A nurse assesses clients at a community health fair. Which client is at greatest risk for the development of hepatitis B?
a. A 20-year-old college student who has had several sexual partners
b. A 46-year-old woman who takes acetaminophen daily for headaches
c. A 63-year-old businessman who travels frequently across the country
d. An 82-year-old woman who recently ate raw shellfish for dinner
ANS: A
Hepatitis B can be spread through sexual contact, needle sharing, needle sticks, blood transfusions, hemodialysis, acupuncture, and the maternal-fetal route. A person with multiple sexual partners has more opportunities to contract the infection. Hepatitis B is not transmitted through medications, casual contact with other travelers, or raw shellfish. Although an overdose of acetaminophen can cause liver cirrhosis, this is not associated with hepatitis B. Hepatitis E is found most frequently in international travelers. Hepatitis A is spread through ingestion of contaminated shellfish.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 1203
KEY: Hepatitis| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. A nurse teaches a client with hepatitis C who is prescribed ribavirin (Copegus). Which statement should the nurse include in this clients discharge education?
a. Use a pill organizer to ensure you take this medication as prescribed.
b. Transient muscle aching is a common side effect of this medication.
c. Follow up with your provider in 1 week to test your blood for toxicity.
d. Take your radial pulse for 1 minute prior to taking this medication.
ANS: A
Treatment of hepatitis C with ribavirin takes up to 48 weeks, making compliance a serious issue. The nurse should work with the client on a strategy to remain compliant for this length of time. Muscle aching is not a common side effect. The client will be on this medication for many weeks and does not need a blood toxicity examination. There is no need for the client to assess his or her radial pulse prior to taking the medication.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1207
KEY: Hepatitis| medication
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

11. After teaching a client who has plans to travel to a non-industrialized country, the nurse assesses the clients understanding regarding the prevention of viral hepatitis. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. I should drink bottled water during my travels.
b. I will not eat off anothers plate or share utensils.
c. I should eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
d. I will wash my hands frequently and thoroughly.
ANS: C
The client should be advised to avoid fresh, raw fruits and vegetables because they can be contaminated by tap water. Drinking bottled water, and not sharing plates, glasses, or eating utensils are good ways to prevent illness, as is careful handwashing.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1205
KEY: Hepatitis| infection control
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. An emergency room nurse assesses a client after a motor vehicle crash. The nurse notices a steering wheel mark across the clients chest. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Ask the client where in the car he or she was sitting during the crash.
b. Assess the client by gently palpating the abdomen for tenderness.
c. Notify the laboratory to draw blood for blood type and crossmatch.
d. Place the client on the stretcher in reverse Trendelenburg position.
ANS: B
The liver is often injured by a steering wheel in a motor vehicle crash. Because the clients chest was marked by the steering wheel, the nurse should perform an abdominal assessment. Assessing the clients position in the crash is not needed because of the steering wheel imprint. The client may or may not need a blood transfusion. The client does not need to be in reverse Trendelenburg position.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1208
KEY: Abdominal trauma| emergency nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

13. A nurse assesses clients on the medical-surgical unit. Which client is at greatest risk for the development of carcinoma of the liver?
a. A 22-year-old with a history of blunt liver trauma
b. A 48-year-old with a history of diabetes mellitus
c. A 66-year-old who has a history of cirrhosis
d. An 82-year-old who has chronic malnutrition
ANS: C
The risk of contracting a primary carcinoma of the liver is higher in clients with cirrhosis from any cause. Blunt liver trauma, diabetes mellitus, and chronic malnutrition do not increase a persons risk for developing liver cancer.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1204
KEY: Liver cancer| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

14. A telehealth nurse speaks with a client who is recovering from a liver transplant 2 weeks ago. The client states, I am experiencing right flank pain and have a temperature of 101 F. How should the nurse respond?
a. The anti-rejection drugs you are taking make you susceptible to infection.
b. You should go to the hospital immediately to have your new liver checked out.
c. You should take an additional dose of cyclosporine today.
d. Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) every 4 hours until you feel better.
ANS: B
Fever, right quadrant or flank pain, and jaundice are signs of liver transplant rejection; the client should be admitted to the hospital as soon as possible for intervention. Anti-rejection drugs do make a client more susceptible to infection, but this client has signs of rejection, not infection. The nurse should not advise the client to take an additional dose of cyclosporine or acetaminophen as these medications will not treat the acute rejection.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1210
KEY: Organ transplantation MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

15. After teaching a client who has alcohol-induced cirrhosis, a nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. I cannot drink any alcohol at all anymore.
b. I need to avoid protein in my diet.
c. I should not take over-the-counter medications.
d. I should eat small, frequent, balanced meals.
ANS: B
Based on the degree of liver involvement and decreased function, protein intake may have to be decreased. However, some protein is necessary for the synthesis of albumin and normal healing. The other statements indicate accurate understanding of self-care measures for this client.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1197
KEY: Cirrhosis| nutritional requirements
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. A nurse cares for a client with hepatopulmonary syndrome who is experiencing dyspnea with oxygen saturations at 92%. The client states, I do not want to wear the oxygen because it causes my nose to bleed. Get out of my room and leave me alone! Which action should the nurse take?
a. Instruct the client to sit in as upright a position as possible.
b. Add humidity to the oxygen and encourage the client to wear it.
c. Document the clients refusal, and call the health care provider.
d. Contact the provider to request an extra dose of the clients diuretic.
ANS: A
The client with hepatopulmonary syndrome is often dyspneic. Because the oxygen saturation is not significantly low, the nurse should first allow the client to sit upright to see if that helps. If the client remains dyspneic, or if the oxygen saturation drops further, the nurse should investigate adding humidity to the oxygen and seeing whether the client will tolerate that. The other two options may be beneficial, but they are not the best choices. If the client is comfortable, his or her agitation will decrease; this will improve respiratory status.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1199
KEY: Cirrhosis| respiratory distress/failure
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

17. A nurse cares for a client who is scheduled for a paracentesis. Which intervention should the nurse delegate to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)?
a. Have the client sign the informed consent form.
b. Assist the client to void before the procedure.
c. Help the client lie flat in bed on the right side.
d. Get the client into a chair after the procedure.
ANS: B
For safety, the client should void just before a paracentesis. The nurse or the provider should have the client sign the consent form. The proper position for a paracentesis is sitting upright in bed or, alternatively, sitting on the side of the bed and leaning over the bedside table. The client will be on bedrest after the procedure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1199
KEY: Cirrhosis| informed consent| preoperative nursing| unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

18. A nurse cares for a client who has chronic cirrhosis from substance abuse. The client states, All of my family hates me. How should the nurse respond?
a. You should make peace with your family.
b. This is not unusual. My family hates me too.
c. I will help you identify a support system.
d. You must attend Alcoholics Anonymous.
ANS: C
Clients who have chronic cirrhosis may have alienated relatives over the years because of substance abuse. The nurse should assist the client to identify a friend, neighbor, or person in his or her recovery group for support. The nurse should not minimize the clients concerns by brushing off the clients comment. Attending AA may be appropriate, but this response doesnt address the clients concern. Making peace with the clients family may not be possible. This statement is not client-centered.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1202
KEY: Cirrhosis| support| coping MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

19. A nurse cares for a client with hepatitis C. The clients brother states, I do not want to contract this infection, so I will not go into his hospital room. How should the nurse respond?
a. If you wear a gown and gloves, you will not get this virus.
b. Viral hepatitis is not spread through casual contact.
c. This virus is only transmitted through a fecal specimen.
d. I can give you an update on your brothers status from here.
ANS: B
Although family members may be afraid that they will contract hepatitis C, the nurse should educate the clients family about how the virus is spread. Viral hepatitis, or hepatitis C, is spread via blood-to-blood transmission and is associated with illicit IV drug needle sharing, blood and organ transplantation, accidental needle sticks, unsanitary tattoo equipment, and sharing of intranasal cocaine paraphernalia. Wearing a gown and gloves will not decrease the transmission of this virus. Hepatitis C is not spread through casual contact or a fecal specimen. The nurse would be violating privacy laws by sharing the clients status with the brother.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1204
KEY: Hepatitis| infection control MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. An infection control nurse develops a plan to decrease the number of health care professionals who contract viral hepatitis at work. Which ideas should the nurse include in this plan? (Select all that apply.)
a. Policies related to consistent use of Standard Precautions
b. Hepatitis vaccination mandate for workers in high-risk areas
c. Implementation of a needleless system for intravenous therapy
d. Number of sharps used in client care reduced where possible
e. Postexposure prophylaxis provided in a timely manner
ANS: A, C, D, E
Nurses should always use Standard Precautions for client care, and policies should reflect this. Needleless systems and reduction of sharps can help prevent hepatitis. Postexposure prophylaxis should be provided immediately. All health care workers should receive the hepatitis vaccinations that are available.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1205
KEY: Hepatitis| infection control| policy
MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

2. A nurse assesses a client who has liver disease. Which laboratory findings should the nurse recognize as potentially causing complications of this disorder? (Select all that apply.)
a. Elevated aspartate transaminase
b. Elevated international normalized ratio (INR)
c. Decreased serum globulin levels
d. Decreased serum alkaline phosphatase
e. Elevated serum ammonia
f. Elevated prothrombin time (PT)
ANS: B, E, F
Elevated INR and PT are indications of clotting disturbances and alert the nurse to the increased possibility of hemorrhage. Elevated ammonia levels increase the clients confusion. The other values are abnormal and associated with liver disease but do not necessarily place the client at increased risk for complications.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1210
KEY: Cirrhosis| laboratory results
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

3. A nurse delegates hygiene care for a client who has advanced cirrhosis to an unlicensed nursing personnel (UAP). Which statements should the nurse include when delegating this task to the UAP? (Select all that apply.)
a. Apply lotion to the clients dry skin areas.
b. Use a basin with warm water to bathe the client.
c. For the clients oral care, use a soft toothbrush.
d. Provide clippers so the client can trim the fingernails.
e. Bathe with antibacterial and water-based soaps.
ANS: A, C, D
Clients with advanced cirrhosis often have pruritus. Lotion will help decrease itchiness from dry skin. A soft toothbrush should be used to prevent gum bleeding, and the clients nails should be trimmed short to prevent the client from scratching himself or herself. These clients should use cool, not warm, water on their skin, and should not use excessive amounts of soap.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1199
KEY: Cirrhosis| delegation| unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

4. A nurse assesses a male client who has symptoms of cirrhosis. Which questions should the nurse ask to identify potential factors contributing to this laboratory result? (Select all that apply.)
a. How frequently do you drink alcohol?
b. Have you ever had sex with a man?
c. Do you have a family history of cancer?
d. Have you ever worked as a plumber?
e. Were you previously incarcerated?
ANS: A, B, E
When assessing a client with suspected cirrhosis, the nurse should ask about alcohol consumption, including amount and frequency; sexual history and orientation (specifically men having sex with men); illicit drug use; history of tattoos; and history of military service, incarceration, or work as a firefighter, police officer, or health care provider. A family history of cancer and work as a plumber do not put the client at risk for cirrhosis.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1199
KEY: Cirrhosis| laboratory values
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

5. A nurse plans care for a client who has hepatopulmonary syndrome. Which interventions should the nurse include in this clients plan of care? (Select all that apply.)
a. Oxygen therapy
b. Prone position
c. Feet elevated on pillows
d. Daily weights
e. Physical therapy
ANS: A, C, D
Care for a client who has hepatopulmonary syndrome should include oxygen therapy, the head of bed elevated at least 30 degrees or as high as the client wants to improve breathing, elevated feet to decrease dependent edema, and daily weights. There is no need to place the client in a prone position, on the clients stomach. Although physical therapy may be helpful to a client who has been hospitalized for several days, physical therapy is not an intervention specifically for hepatopulmonary syndrome.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1195
KEY: Cirrhosis| respiratory distress/failure
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

6. An emergency room nurse assesses a client with potential liver trauma. Which clinical manifestations should alert the nurse to internal bleeding and hypovolemic shock? (Select all that apply.)
a. Hypertension
b. Tachycardia
c. Flushed skin
d. Confusion
e. Shallow respirations
ANS: B, D
Symptoms of hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock include hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, pallor, diaphoresis, cool and clammy skin, and confusion.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1208
KEY: Abdominal trauma| emergency nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

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