Chapter 58 Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

A 45-year-old woman comes into the health clinic for her annual check-up. She mentions to the nurse that she has noticed dimpling of the right breast that has occurred in a few months. What assessment would be most appropriate for the nurse to make?

A)

Evaluate the patients milk production.

B)

Palpate the area for a breast mass.

C)

Assess the patients knowledge of breast cancer.

D)

Assure the patient that this likely an age-related change.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

It would be most important for the nurse to palpate the breast to determine the presence of a mass and to refer the patient to her primary care provider. Edema and pitting of the skin may result from a neoplasm blocking lymphatic drainage, giving the skin an orange-peel appearance (peau dorange), a classic sign of advanced breast cancer. Evaluation of milk production is required in lactating women. There is no indication of lactation in the scenario. The patients knowledge of breast cancer is relevant, but is not a time-dependent priority. This finding is not an age-related change.

2.

The nurse leading an educational session is describing self-examination of the breast. The nurse tells the womens group to raise their arms and inspect their breasts in a mirror. A member of the womens group asks the nurse why raising her arms is necessary. What is the nurses best response?

A)

It helps to spread out the fat that makes up your breast.

B)

It allows you to simultaneously assess for pain.

C)

It will help to observe for dimpling more closely.

D)

This is what the American Cancer Society recommends.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The primary reason for raising the arms is to detect any dimpling. To elicit skin dimpling or retraction that may otherwise go undetected, the examiner instructs the patient to raise both arms overhead. Citing American Cancer Society recommendations does not address the womans question. The purpose of raising the arms is not to elicit pain or to redistribute adipose tissue.

3.

A woman aged 48 years comes to the clinic because she has discovered a lump in her breast. After diagnostic testing, the woman receives a diagnosis of breast cancer. The woman asks the nurse when her teenage daughters should begin mammography. What is the nurses best advice?

A)

Age 28

B)

Age 35

C)

Age 38

D)

Age 48

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A general guideline is to begin screening 5 to 10 years earlier than the age at which the youngest family member developed breast cancer, but not before age 25 years. In families with a history of breast cancer, a downward shift in age of diagnosis of about 10 years is seen. Because their mother developed breast cancer at age 48 years, the daughters should begin mammography at age 38 to 43 years.

4.

A woman scheduled for a simple mastectomy in one week is having her preoperative education provided by the clinic nurse. What educational intervention will be of primary importance to prevent hemorrhage in the postoperative period?

A)

Limit her intake of green leafy vegetables.

B)

Increase her water intake to 8 glasses per day.

C)

Stop taking aspirin.

D)

Have nothing by mouth for 6 hours before surgery.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The nurse should instruct the patient to stop taking aspirin due to its anticoagulant effect. Limiting green leafy vegetables will decrease vitamin K and marginally increase bleeding. Increasing fluid intake or being NPO before surgery will have no effect on bleeding.

5.

The nurse is caring for a 52-year-old woman whose aunt and mother died of breast cancer. The patient states, My doctor and I talked about Tamoxifen to help prevent breast cancer. Do you think it will work? What would be the nurses best response?

A)

Yes, its known to have a slight protective effect.

B)

Yes, but studies also show an increased risk of osteoporosis.

C)

You wont need to worry about getting cancer as long as you take Tamoxifen.

D)

Tamoxifen is known to be a highly effective protective measure.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Tamoxifen has been shown to be a highly effective chemopreventive agent. However, it cannot reduce the risk of cancer by 100%. It also acts to prevent osteoporosis.

6.

A woman is being treated for a tumor of the left breast. If the patient and her physician opt for prophylactic treatment, the nurse should prepare the woman for what intervention?

A)

More aggressive chemotherapy

B)

Left mastectomy

C)

Radiation therapy

D)

Bilateral mastectomy

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Right mastectomy would be considered a prophylactic measure to reduce the risk of cancer in the patients unaffected breast. None of the other listed interventions would be categorized as being prophylactic rather than curative.

7.

During a recent visit to the clinic a woman presents with erythema of the nipple and areola on the right breast. She states this started several weeks ago and she was fearful of what would be found. The nurse should promptly refer the patient to her primary care provider because the patients signs and symptoms are suggestive of what health problem?

A)

Peau dorange

B)

Nipple inversion

C)

Pagets disease

D)

Acute mastitis

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Pagets disease presents with erythema of the nipple and areola. Peau dorange, which is associated with breast cancer, is caused by interference with lymphatic drainage, but does not cause these specific signs. Nipple inversion is considered normal if long-standing; if it is associated with fibrosis and is a recent development, malignancy is suspected. Acute mastitis is associated with lactation, but it may occur at any age.

8.

A patient who came to the clinic after finding a mass in her breast is scheduled for a diagnostic breast biopsy. During the nurses admission assessment, the nurse observes that the patient is distracted and tense. What is it important for the nurse to do?

A)

Acknowledge the fear the patient is likely experiencing.

B)

Describe the support groups that exist in the community.

C)

Assess the patients stress management skills.

D)

Document a nursing diagnosis of ineffective coping.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

In the breast cancer diagnostic phase it is appropriate to acknowledge the patients feelings of fear, concern, and apprehension. This must precede interventions such as referrals, if appropriate. Assessment of stress management skills made be necessary, but the nurse should begin by acknowledging the patients feelings. Fear is not necessarily indicative of ineffective coping.

9.

A patient has been referred to the breast clinic after her most recent mammogram revealed the presence of a lump. The lump is found to be a small, well-defined nodule in the right breast. The oncology nurse should recognize the likelihood of what treatment?

A)

Lumpectomy and radiation

B)

Partial mastectomy and radiation

C)

Partial mastectomy and chemotherapy

D)

Total mastectomy and chemotherapy

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Treatment for breast cancer depends on the disease stage and type, the patients age and menopausal status, and the disfiguring effects of the surgery. For this patient, lumpectomy is the most likely option because the nodule is well-defined. The patient usually undergoes radiation therapy afterward. Because a lumpectomy is possible, mastectomy would not be the treatment of choice.

10.

A 23-year-old woman comes to the free clinic stating I think I have a lump in my breast. Do I have cancer? The nurse instructs the patient that a diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by what?

A)

Supervised breast self-examination

B)

Mammography

C)

Fine-needle aspiration

D)

Chest x-ray

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Fine-needle aspiration and biopsy provide cells for histologic examination to confirm a diagnosis, although falsenegative and falsepositive findings are possibilities. A breast self-examination, if done regularly, is the most reliable method for detecting breast lumps early, but is not diagnostic of cancer. Mammography is used to detect tumors that are too small to palpate. Chest x-rays can be used to pinpoint rib metastasis. Neither test is considered diagnostic of breast cancer, however.

11.

A 42 year-old patient tells the nurse that she has found a painless lump in her right breast during her monthly self-examination. She says that she is afraid that she has cancer. Which assessment finding would most strongly suggest that this patients lump is cancerous?

A)

Eversion of the right nipple and mobile mass

B)

A nonmobile mass with irregular edges

C)

A mobile mass that is soft and easily delineated

D)

Nonpalpable right axillary lymph nodes

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Breast cancer tumors are typically fixed, hard, and poorly delineated with irregular edges. A mobile mass that is soft and easily delineated is most commonly a fluid-filled benign cyst. Axillary lymph nodes may or may not be palpable on initial detection of a cancerous mass. Nipple retraction, not eversion, may be a sign of cancer.

12.

A patient in her 30s has two young children and has just had a modified radical mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. The patient shares with the nurse that she is somewhat worried about her future, but she appears to be adjusting well to her diagnosis and surgery. What nursing intervention is most appropriate to support this patients coping?

A)

Encourage the patients spouse or partner to be supportive while she recovers.

B)

Encourage the patient to proceed with the next phase of treatment.

C)

Recommend that the patient remain optimistic for the sake of her children.

D)

Arrange a referral to a community-based support program.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient is not exhibiting clear signs of anxiety or depression. Therefore, the nurse can probably safely approach her about talking with others who have had similar experiences. The nurse may educate the patients spouse or partner to listen for concerns, but the nurse should not tell the patients spouse what to do. The patient must consult with her physician and make her own decisions about further treatment. The patient needs to express her sadness, frustration, and fear. She cannot be expected to be optimistic at all times.

13.

The nurse is caring for a patient who has just had a radical mastectomy and axillary node dissection. When providing patient education regarding rehabilitation, what should the nurse recommend?

A)

Avoid exercise of the arm for next 2 months.

B)

Keep cuticles clipped neatly.

C)

Avoid lifting objects heavier than 10 pounds.

D)

Use a sling until healing is complete.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Following an axillary dissection, the patient should avoid lifting objects greater than 5 to 10 pounds, cutting the cuticles, and undergoing venipuncture on the affected side. Exercises of the hand and arm are encouraged and the use of a sling is not necessary.

14.

A new mother who is breastfeeding calls the clinic to speak to a nurse. The patient is complaining of pain in her left breast and describes her breast as feeling doughy. The nurse tells her to come into the clinic and be checked. The patient is diagnosed with acute mastitis and placed on antibiotics. What comfort measure should the nurse recommend?

A)

Apply cold compresses as ordered.

B)

Avoid wearing a bra until the infection clears.

C)

Avoid washing the breasts.

D)

Perform gentle massage to stimulate neutrophil migration.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Treatment of mastitis consists of antibiotics and local application of cold compresses to relieve discomfort. A broad-spectrum antibiotic agent may be prescribed for 7 to 10 days. The patient should wear a snug bra and perform personal hygiene carefully. Massage is not recommended.

15.

When planning discharge teaching with a patient who has undergone a total mastectomy with axillary dissection, the nurse knows to instruct the patient that she should report what sign or symptom to the physician immediately?

A)

Fatigue

B)

Temperature greater than 98.5F

C)

Sudden cessation of output from the drainage device

D)

Gradual decline in output from the drain

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The patient should report sudden cessation of output from the drainage device, which could indicate an occlusion. Gradual decline in output is expected. A temperature of 100.4F or greater should also be reported to rule out postoperative infection, but a temperature of 98.5F is not problematic. Fatigue is expected during the recovery period.

16.

A patient newly diagnosed with breast cancer states that her physician suspects regional lymph node involvement and told her that there are signs of metastatic disease. The nurse learns that the patient has been diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer. What is an implication of this diagnosis?

A)

The patient is not a surgical candidate.

B)

The patients breast cancer is considered highly treatable.

C)

There is a 10% chance that the patients cancer will self-resolve.

D)

The patient has a 15% chance of 5-year survival.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The 5-year survival rate is approximately 15% for stage IV breast cancer. Surgery is still a likely treatment, but the disease would not be considered to be highly treatable. Self-resolution of the disease is not a possibility.

17.

The nurse is performing a comprehensive health history of a patient who is in her 50s. The nurse should identify what risk factor that may increase this patients risk for breast cancer?

A)

The patient breastfed each of her children.

B)

The patient gave birth to her first child at age 38.

C)

The patient experienced perimenopausal symptoms starting at age 46.

D)

The patient experienced menarche at age 13.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Late age at first pregnancy is a risk factor for breast cancer. None of the other listed aspects of the patients health history is considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer.

18.

A nurse is examining a patient who has been diagnosed with a fibroadenoma. The nurse should recognize what implication of this patients diagnosis?

A)

The patient will be scheduled for radiation therapy.

B)

The patient might be referred for a biopsy.

C)

The patients breast mass is considered an age-related change.

D)

The patients diagnosis is likely related to her use of oral contraceptives.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Fibroadenomas are firm, round, movable, benign tumors. These masses are nontender and are sometimes removed for biopsy and definitive diagnosis. They are not considered to be an age-related change, even though they are benign. Radiation therapy is unnecessary and fibroadenomas do not result from oral contraceptive use.

19.

The nurse is reviewing the physicians notes from the patient who has just left the clinic. The nurse learns that the physician suspects a malignant breast tumor. On palpation, the mass most likely had what characteristic?

A)

Nontenderness

B)

A size of 5 mm

C)

Softness and a regular shape

D)

Mobility

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Generally, the lesions are nontender, fixed rather than mobile, and hard with irregular borders. Small size is not suggestive of malignancy.

20.

A patient has presented for her annual mammogram. The patient voices concerns related to exposure to radiation. What should the nurse teach the patient about a mammogram?

A)

It does not use radiation.

B)

Radiation levels are safe as long as mammograms are performed only once per year.

C)

The negative effects of radiation do not accumulate until late in life.

D)

Radiation from a mammogram is equivalent to an hour of sunlight.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The radiation exposure of mammogram is equivalent to about 1 hour of exposure to sunlight. Consequently, the benefits of mammography far outweigh any risks associated with the procedure. Negative consequences are insignificant, and do not accumulate later in life.

21.

For which of the following population groups would an annual clinical breast examination be recommended?

A)

Women over age 21

B)

Women over age 25

C)

Women over age 40

D)

All post-pubescent females with a family history of breast cancer

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Annual clinical breast examination is recommended for women aged 40 years and older. Younger women may have examinations less frequently.

22.

A 42-year-old man has come to the clinic for an annual physical. The nurse notes in the patients history that his father was treated for breast cancer. What should the nurse provide to the patient before he leaves the clinic?

A)

A referral for a mammogram

B)

Instructions about breast self-examination (BSE)

C)

A referral to a surgeon

D)

A referral to a support group

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Instructions about BSE should be provided to men if they have a family history of breast cancer, because they may have an increased risk of male breast cancer. It is not within the scope of the practice of a nurse to refer a patient for a mammogram or to a surgeon; these actions are not necessary or recommended. In the absence of symptoms or a diagnosis, referral to a support group is unnecessary.

23.

The nurse is teaching breast self-examination (BSE) to a group of women. The nurse should recommend that the women perform BSE at what time?

A)

At the time of menses

B)

At any convenient time, regardless of cycles

C)

Weekly

D)

Between days 5 and 7 after menses

Ans:

D

Feedback:

BSE is best performed after menses, on day 5 to day 7, counting the first day of menses as day 1. Monthly performance is recommended.

24.

A nurse is teaching a group of women about the potential benefits of breast self-examination (BSE). The nurse should teach the women that effective BSE is dependent on what factor?

A)

Womens knowledge of how their breasts normally look and feel

B)

The rapport that exists between the woman and her primary care provider

C)

Synchronizing womens routines around BSE with the performance of mammograms

D)

Womens knowledge of the pathophysiology of breast cancer

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Current practice emphasizes the importance of breast self-awareness, which is a womans attentiveness to the normal appearance and feel of her breasts. BSE does not need to be synchronized with the performance of mammograms. Rapport between the patient and the care provider is beneficial, but does not necessarily determine the effectiveness of BSE. The woman does not need to understand the pathophysiology of breast cancer to perform BSE effectively.

25.

A 60-year-old man presents at the clinic complaining that his breasts are tender and enlarging. The patient is subsequently diagnosed with gynecomastia. The patient should be assessed for the possibility of what causative factor?

A)

Age-related physiologic changes

B)

Medication adverse effects

C)

Poor nutrition

D)

Fluid overload

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Gynecomastia can also occur in older men and usually presents as a firm, tender mass underneath the areola. In these patients, gynecomastia may be diffuse and related to the use of certain medications. It is unrelated to fluid overload or nutrition and is not considered an age-related change.

26.

A woman is considering breast reduction mammoplasty. When weighing the potential risks and benefits of this surgical procedure, the nurse should confirm that the patient is aware of what potential consequence?

A)

Chronic breast pain

B)

Unclear mammography results

C)

Increased risk of breast cancer

D)

Decreased nipple sensation

Ans:

D

Feedback:

During the preoperative consultation, the patient should be informed of a possibility that sensory changes of the nipple (e.g., numbness) may occur. There is no consequent increase in breast cancer risk and it does not affect future mammography results. Chronic pain is not an expected complication.

27.

A patient is to undergo an ultrasound-guided core biopsy. The patient tells the nurse that a friend of hers had a stereotactic core biopsy. She wants to understand the differences between the two procedures. What would be the nurses best response?

A)

An ultrasound-guided core biopsy is faster, less expensive, and does not use radiation.

B)

An ultrasound-guided core biopsy is a little more expensive, but it doesnt use radiation and it is faster.

C)

An ultrasound-guided core biopsy is a little more expensive, and it also uses radiation but it is faster.

D)

An ultrasound-guided core biopsy takes more time, and it also uses radiation, but it is less expensive.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Ultrasound-guided core biopsy does not use radiation and is also faster and less expensive than stereotactic core biopsy.

28.

A patient at high risk for breast cancer is scheduled for an incisional biopsy in the outpatient surgery department. When the nurse is providing preoperative education, the patient asks why an incisional biopsy is being done instead of just removing the mass. What would be the nurses best response?

A)

An incisional biopsy is performed because its known to be less painful and more accurate than other forms of testing.

B)

An incisional biopsy is performed to confirm a diagnosis and so that special studies can be done that will help determine the best treatment.

C)

An incisional biopsy is performed to assess the potential for recovery from a mastectomy.

D)

An incisional biopsy is performed on patients who are younger than the age of 40 and who are otherwise healthy.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Incisional biopsy surgically removes a portion of a mass. This is performed to confirm a diagnosis and to conduct special studies that will aid in determining treatment. Incisional biopsies cannot always remove the whole mass, nor is it always beneficial to the patient to do so. The procedure is not chosen because of the potential for pain, the possibility of recovery from mastectomy, or the patients age.

29.

A patient is being discharged home from the ambulatory surgery center after an incisional biopsy of a mass in her left breast. What are the criteria for discharging this patient home? Select all that apply.

A)

Patient must understand when she can begin ambulating

B)

Patient must have someone to accompany her home

C)

Patient must understand activity restrictions

D)

Patient must understand care of the biopsy site

E)

Patient must understand when she can safely remove her urinary catheter

Ans:

B, C, D

Feedback:

Prior to discharge from the ambulatory surgical center or the office, the patient must be able to tolerate fluids, ambulate, and void. The patient must have somebody to accompany her home and would not be discharged with urinary catheter in place.

30.

A patient has just been told she needs to have an incisional biopsy of a right breast mass. During preoperative teaching, how could the nurse best assess this patient for specific educational, physical, or psychosocial needs she might have?

A)

By encouraging her to verbalize her questions and concerns

B)

By discussing the possible findings of the biopsy

C)

By discussing possible treatment options if the diagnosis is cancer

D)

By reviewing her medical history

Ans:

A

Feedback:

During the preoperative visit, the nurse assesses the patient for any specific educational, physical, or psychosocial needs that she may have. This can be accomplished by encouraging her to verbalize her fears, concerns, and questions. Reviewing her medical history may be beneficial, but it is not the best way to ascertain her needs. Discussing possible findings of the biopsy and possible treatment options is the responsibility of the treating physician.

31.

A patient has just returned to the postsurgical unit from post-anesthetic recovery after breast surgery for removal of a malignancy. What is the most likely major nursing diagnosis to include in this patients immediate plan of care?

A)

Acute pain related to tissue manipulation and incision

B)

Ineffective coping related to surgery

C)

Risk for trauma related to post-surgical injury

D)

Chronic sorrow related to change in body image

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Although many patients experience minimal pain, it is still important to assess for this postsurgical complication. Sorrow and ineffective coping are possible, but neither is likely to be evident in the immediate postoperative period. There is minimal risk of trauma.

32.

A 52-year-old woman has just been told she has breast cancer and is scheduled for a modified mastectomy the following week. The nurse caring for this patient knows that she is anxious and fearful about the upcoming procedure and the newly diagnosed malignancy. How can the nurse most likely alleviate this patients fears?

A)

Provide written material on the procedure that has been scheduled for the patient.

B)

Provide the patient with relevant information about expected recovery.

C)

Give the patient current information on breast cancer survival rates.

D)

Offer the patient alternative treatment options.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Providing the patient with realistic expectations about the healing process and expected recovery can help alleviate fears. Offering the patient alternative treatment options is not within the nurses normal scope of practice. Addressing survival rates may or may not be beneficial for the patient. Written material is rarely sufficient to meet patients needs.

33.

A nurse is explaining that each breast contains 12 to 20 cone-shaped lobes. The nurse should explain that each lobe consists of what elements?

A)

Modified tendons and ligaments

B)

Connective tissue and smooth muscle

C)

Lobules and ducts

D)

Endocrine glands and sebaceous glands

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Each breast contains 12 to 20 cone-shaped lobes, which are made up of glandular elements (lobules and ducts) and separated by fat and fibrous tissue that binds the lobes together. These breast lobes do not consist of tendons, ligaments, endocrine glands, or smooth muscle.

34.

A nurse has assessed that a patient is not yet willing to view her mastectomy site. How should the nurse best assist the patient is developing a positive body image?

A)

Ask the woman to describe the current appearance of her breast.

B)

Help the patient to understand that many women have gone through the same unpleasant experience.

C)

Explain to the patient that her body image does not have to depend on her physical appearance.

D)

Provide the patient with encouragement in an empathic and thoughtful manner.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Gentle encouragement can help the patient progress toward accepting the change in her appearance. The nurse should not downplay the significance of physical appearance. Explaining that others have had similar experiences may or may not benefit the patient. Asking the patient to describe the appearance of her breast is likely to exacerbate the womans reluctance to do so.

35.

A patient has had a total mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. The patient asks the nurse when she can take a shower. What should the nurse respond?

A)

Not until the drain is removed

B)

On the second postoperative day

C)

Now, if you wash gently with soap and water

D)

Seven days after your surgery

Ans:

A

Feedback:

If immediate reconstruction has been performed, showering may be contraindicated until the drain is removed.

36.

A patient has been discharged home after a total mastectomy without reconstruction. The patient lives alone and has a home health referral. When the home care nurse performs the first scheduled visit this patient, what should the nurse assess? Select all that apply.

A)

Adherence to the exercise plan

B)

Overall psychological functioning

C)

Integrity of surgical drains

D)

Understanding of cancer

E)

Use of the breast prosthesis

Ans:

A, B, C

Feedback:

Patients who have difficulty managing their postoperative care at home may benefit from a home health care referral. The home care nurse assesses the patients incision and surgical drain(s), adequacy of pain management, adherence to the exercise plan, and overall physical and psychological functioning. It is unnecessary to assess the patients understanding of cancer at this stage of recovery. Prostheses may be considered later in the recovery process.

37.

A patient has just been diagnosed with breast cancer and the nurse is performing a patient interview. In assessing this patients ability to cope with this diagnosis, what would be an appropriate question for the nurse to ask this patient?

A)

What is your level of education?

B)

Are you feeling alright these days?

C)

Is there someone you trust to help you make treatment choices?

D)

Are you concerned about receiving this diagnosis?

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A trusted ally to assist in making treatment choices is beneficial to the patients coping ability. It is condescending and inappropriate to ask if the patient is feeling alright these days or is concerned about the diagnosis. The patients education level is irrelevant.

38.

A 35-year-old mother of three young children has been diagnosed with stage II breast cancer. After discussing treatment options with her physician, the woman goes home to talk to her husband, later calling the nurse for clarification of some points. The patient tells the nurse that the physician has recommended breast conservation surgery followed by radiation. The patients husband has done some online research and is asking why his wife does not have a modified radical mastectomy to be sure all the cancer is gone. What would be the nurses best response?

A)

Modified radical mastectomies are very hard on a patient, both physically and emotionally and they really arent necessary anymore.

B)

According to current guidelines, having a modified radical mastectomy is no longer seen as beneficial.

C)

Modified radical mastectomies have a poor survival rate because of the risk of cancer recurrence.

D)

According to current guidelines, breast conservation combined with radiation is as effective as a modified radical mastectomy.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Breast conservation along with radiation therapy in stage I and stage II breast cancer results in a survival rate equal to that of modified radical mastectomy. Mastectomies are still necessary in many cases, but are not associated with particular risk of recurrence.

39.

A patient who has had a lumpectomy calls the clinic to talk to the nurse. The patient tells the nurse that she has developed a tender area on her breast that is red and warm and looks like someone drew a line with a red marker. What would the nurse suspect is the womans problem?

A)

Mondor disease

B)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the breast

C)

Recurrent malignancy

D)

An area of fat necrosis

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Superficial thrombophlebitis of the breast (Mondor disease) is an uncommon condition that is usually associated with pregnancy, trauma, or breast surgery. Pain and redness occur as a result of a superficial thrombophlebitis in the vein that drains the outer part of the breast. The mass is usually linear, tender, and erythematous. Fat necrosis is a condition of the breast that is often associated with a history of trauma. The scenario described does not indicate a recurrent malignancy. DVTs of the breast do not occur.

40.

A woman calls the clinic and tells the nurse she has had bloody drainage from her right nipple. The nurse makes an appointment for this patient, expecting the physician or practitioner to order what diagnostic test on this patient?

A)

Breast ultrasound

B)

Radiography

C)

Positron emission testing (PET)

D)

Galactography

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Galactography is a diagnostic procedure that involves injection of less than 1 mL of radiopaque material through a cannula inserted into the ductal opening on the areola, which is followed by mammography. It is performed to evaluate an abnormality within the duct when the patient has bloody nipple discharge on expression, spontaneous nipple discharge, or a solitary dilated duct noted on mammography. X-ray, PET, and ultrasound are not typically used for this purpose.

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