Chapter 6- Values, Ethics, and Legal Issues Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

The nurse is preparing to administer a medication ordered by the surgeon in a dose much higher than is recommended. What action should the nurse take?

A)

Call the surgeon to clarify the order.

B)

Administer the medication as ordered and chart the high dose.

C)

Administer the medication and stay with the patient to observe for adverse reactions.

D)

Administer the medication in the usual dosage.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Under current nurse practice laws, nurses are responsible for their own actions regardless of the providers written order. If an order is ambiguous or inappropriate, the nurse must clarify the medication order with the prescribing healthcare provider. If the nurse is dissatisfied with the providers response and still believes that the order is incorrect or unsafe, he or she must notify a supervisor.

2.

When the nurse inserts an ordered urinary catheter into the patients urethra after the patient has refused the procedure and the patient suffers an injury, the patient may sue the nurse for which type of tort?

A)

Battery

B)

Assault

C)

Invasion of privacy

D)

Dereliction of duty

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Battery is the actual carrying out of such threat (unlawful touching of a persons body). A nurse may be sued for battery if he or she fails to obtain consent for a procedure.

3.

A baccalaureate-prepared nurse is applying for a nurse practitioner position. The nurse is

A)

Well educated and can perform these duties

B)

Able to practice as a nurse practitioner

C)

Educated to practice only with pediatric patients

D)

Practicing beyond his scope according to licensure

Ans:

D

Feedback:

A nurse without an advanced practice license is not able to practice beyond his or her scope in accordance with the Nurse Practice Act.

4.

A nurse fails to administer a medication that prevents seizures, and the patient has a seizure. The nurse is in violation of the Nurse Practice Act. What type of law is the nurse in violation of?

A)

Criminal

B)

Federal

C)

Civil

D)

Supreme

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Malpractice cases are generally the kind of civil cases that involve nurses.

5.

A post-anesthesia nurse is reporting about the patient to the intensive care unit nurse in the elevator. There are staff members and visitors in the elevator. The nurse is

A)

Implementing therapeutic communication

B)

Interacting to maintain coordination of care

C)

Breaching the patients confidentiality

D)

Maintaining the continuity of care

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The principle of confidentiality requires that information about a patient be kept private. Discussing patients outside the clinical setting, telling friends or family about patients, or even discussing patients in the elevator with other workers violates patient confidentiality and must be avoided.

6.

When the nurse informs a patients employer of his autoimmune deficiency disease, the nurse is committing the tort of

A)

Breach of contract

B)

Assault

C)

Invasion of privacy

D)

Battery

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Nurses have access to information recorded in the medical record, information shared or observed through care or interactions with friends and family, and through access to the patients body. A loss of privacy occurs if others inappropriately use their access to a person.

7.

A nurse states to the patient that she will keep her free of pain. However, her family wishes to try a treatment to prolong her life that may necessitate withholding pain medication. This factor will cause an ethical dilemma for the nurse in relation to which ethical principle?

A)

Fidelity

B)

Veracity

C)

Justice

D)

Autonomy

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Fidelity means being faithful to ones commitments and promises.

8.

An oncology patient in an outpatient chemotherapy clinic asks several questions regarding his care and treatment. The nurse explains the clinics routine, typical side effects of the chemotherapy, and ways to decrease the number of side effects experienced. What characteristic is the nurse demonstrating?

A)

Veracity

B)

Fidelity

C)

Justice

D)

Autonomy

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Veracity means telling the truth, which is essential to the integrity of the patientprovider relationship.

9.

The foundation for decisions about resource allocation throughout a society or group is based on the ethical principle of

A)

Veracity

B)

Autonomy

C)

Justice

D)

Confidentiality

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Justice is the foundation for decisions about resource allocation throughout a society or group.

10.

The patient being admitted to the oncology unit conveys his wishes regarding resuscitation in the event of cardiopulmonary arrest. The nurse advises the patient that it would be in his best interest to obtain which document?

A)

A will

B)

A living will

C)

Proof of healthcare power of attorney

D)

A proxy directive

Ans:

B

Feedback:

A living will is an advance directive that specifies the type of medical treatment patients do or do not want to receive should they be unable to speak for themselves in a terminal or permanently unconscious condition.

11.

A legal document that states a patients health-related wishessuch as a preference for pain management if the patient becomes terminally illand also allows the patients daughter to direct his or her care, is a(an)

A)

Will

B)

Standard of care

C)

License

D)

Advance directive

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Patients communicate their wishes to healthcare providers by verbally participating in healthcare decision making and by employing written documents called advance directives.

12.

A patient is in a persistent vegetative state. The patient has no immediate family and is a ward of the state. Under these circumstances, who will speak on her behalf?

A)

Surrogate decision maker

B)

Church-appointed guardian

C)

A significant other

D)

Her best friend

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Infants, young children, people who are severely mentally handicapped or incapacitated, and people in a persistent vegetative state or coma do not have the capacity to participate in decision making about their healthcare. For such people, a surrogate decision maker must be identified to act on their behalf.

13.

An 83-year-old woman who has suffered a cerebrovascular accident and is unable to swallow refuses the insertion of a feeding tube. This is an example of what ethical principle?

A)

Nonmaleficence

B)

Veracity

C)

Autonomy

D)

Justice

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Autonomy essentially means independence and the ability to be self-directed.

14.

An emergency department nurse and healthcare team, caring for a 2-year-old, semiconscious child with numerous fractures and evidence of cigarette burns, suspect child abuse. The nurse reports the family to the child abuse hotline. The nurse is following which ethical principle?

A)

Beneficence

B)

Nonmaleficence

C)

Justice

D)

Fidelity

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The principle of nonmaleficence means to avoid doing harm, to remove harm, and to prevent harm.

15.

A home care nurse visits a patient who is confined to bed and is cared for by her daughter. The daughter is known to suffer from chemical dependence. The home is cluttered and unclean. During the assessment the nurse notes that the patient is wet with urine and has dried feces on her buttocks, and demonstrates signs of dehydration. After caring for the patient, the nurse contacts the physician and reports the incident to Adult Protective Services. This is an example of which ethical framework?

A)

Justice

B)

Beneficence

C)

Nonmaleficence

D)

Fidelity

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The principle of nonmaleficence means to avoid doing harm, to remove harm, and to prevent harm. Beneficence means doing or promoting good. Nurses work to accomplish good for patients by promoting their best interests and striving to achieve optimal outcomes. The patients circumstances indicate harm.

16.

A nurse is caring for a 28-year-old woman who has delivered a baby by cesarean section. She describes her pain as a 9. The nurse medicates her for pain. This is an example of which of the following ethical frameworks?

A)

Justice

B)

Fidelity

C)

Beneficence

D)

Nonmaleficence

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Beneficence means doing or promoting good. The treatment of the patients pain is the nurses act of doing good.

17.

The American Nurses Associations Code of Ethics for Nurses

A)

Serves to establish personal ethics for nurses

B)

Delineates nurses conduct and responsibilities

C)

Serves as a guideline for all healthcare

D)

Plays an important role in legal proceedings

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The ANA recently revised the Code of Ethics for Nurses that delineates the conduct and responsibilities expected of all nurses in their nursing practices.

18.

A nurse is caring for a patient who is a practicing Jehovahs Witness. The physician orders 2 units of packed cells based on his low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The nurse states to the surgeon that it is unethical to go against the patients beliefs even though his blood counts are very low. What is the best description of the nurses intentions?

A)

Acting in the patients best interest

B)

Siding with the patient over the surgeon

C)

Observing institutional policies

D)

Being legally responsible

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Nurses ethical obligations include acting in the best interest of their patients not only as individual practitioners but also as members of the nursing profession, the healthcare team, and the community at large.

19.

To practice ethically, the nurse should

A)

Allow a committee to guide her practice

B)

Review past cases before guiding practice

C)

Avoid allowing her judgment to guide practice

D)

Ask the family their views on caring

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Personal convictions apply only to situations and decisions pertaining to the individual. In ethical practice, nurses avoid allowing personal judgments to bias their treatment of patients.

20.

A hospital owned by a Catholic order of nuns will not allow tubal ligations to be performed. This is considered to be

A)

Personal morality

B)

Personal values

C)

Institutional policy

D)

Legal obligation

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Institutional policies are guidelines developed by healthcare institutions to direct professional practice.

21.

A nurse is of the Catholic faith and votes pro-life. He is considered to have

A)

Personal morality

B)

Personal values

C)

Ethics

D)

Legal obligations

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Personal values are ideas or beliefs a person considers important and feels strongly about.

22.

A nurse believes that abortion is an acceptable option if a pregnancy results from a situation of rape. What is the best description of this belief?

A)

Personal morality

B)

Professional values

C)

Ethics

D)

Legal obligations

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Personal morality is the set of beliefs about the standards of right and wrong that helps a person determine the correct or permissible action in a given situation.

23.

Ethics is best defined as

A)

Basis for moral reasoning

B)

Standards of conduct

C)

Dealing with conflict

D)

Decision making

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Ethics is the branch of philosophy dealing with standards of conduct and moral judgment.

24.

A child on a pediatric unit hits one of the other children and subsequently has video game privileges revoked for the rest of the day. The next day the same child plays with the other children without any problems in order to avoid losing video game privileges again. According to Kohlberg, the child is demonstrating what stage of development?

A)

Trust versus mistrust

B)

Moralizing

C)

First-level preconventional stage

D)

Self-actualization

Ans:

C

Feedback:

As children progress to toddlerhood, morals and values development begins as they identify behaviors that elicit reward or punishment. Kohlberg refers to this process as the first-level preconventional stage when children learn to distinguish right from wrong and understand the choice between obedience and punishment.

25.

During adolescence, values are primarily formed from

A)

Schools

B)

Work

C)

Parents

D)

Peers

Ans:

D

Feedback:

In adolescence, peer groups are the primary source of value formation. The attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that grow out of peer group relationships are powerful.

26.

How are values converted from knowledge into messages which can then be processed as information?

A)

Religion

B)

Nature

C)

Time

D)

Activity

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Values are codified in social institutions such as family, school, and religion. Values can then be adopted, adapted, or dismissed based on the persons life experiences and social system.

27.

The purpose of a values inquiry discussion with a group of nursing students is to

A)

Examine past decisions

B)

Examine social issues

C)

Alter the groups views

D)

Improve the groups image

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Values inquiry is a method of examining social issues and the values that motivate human choices.

28.

The differences between the pro-life and abortion rights movement is an example of

A)

Values inquiry

B)

Social activism

C)

Ethical inconsistency

D)

Values clarification

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Values inquiry is a method of examining social issues and the values that motivate human choices.

29.

A dying patient tells the nurse that he doesnt want to see his family because he doesnt want to cause them more sadness. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

A)

Arrange a meeting between the family and the patient

B)

Help the patient clarify his values

C)

Educate the patient on death and dying concepts

D)

Allow the patient time for quiet reflection

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Values clarification is a method of self-discovery by which people identify their personal values and value rankings. The patients value of family may be obscured because of his overwhelming need to protect his family.

30.

A hospice nurse is caring for a patient with terminal cancer. The family would like the patient to continue aggressive therapy to treat the cancer, but the patient has voiced to the nurse that, after much thought, he does not want to pursue any further treatment. The nurse speaks to the family about the patients wishes, condition, and terminal state. This action is most likely derived from which nursing obligation?

A)

Legal responsibilities

B)

Nursing education principles

C)

Advanced practice licensure guidelines

D)

Moral values

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Moral values involve correct behavior, such as having some sense of right and wrong. Moral values help direct nurses to deal with human interactions that involve the integrity of life or health.

31.

A nursing students attitude is defined as:

A)

Belief in ones self

B)

Desire to do good

C)

Disposition toward situations

D)

Choosing between alternatives

Ans:

C

Feedback:

An attitude is ones disposition toward an object or a situation; it can be a mental or emotional mindset, and it can be positive or negative.

32.

Socialization into the nursing profession may have the most significant effect on

A)

Roles

B)

Values

C)

Documentation

D)

Planning

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Values that the nurse will need to balance include truth, harmony, duty, and responsibility.

33.

What are standards for decision making that endure for a significant time in ones life?

A)

Beliefs

B)

Ethics

C)

Roles

D)

Values

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Values are standards for decision making that endure for a significant time in ones life.

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