Chapter 62: Care of Patients with Pituitary and Adrenal Gland Problems Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 62: Care of Patients with Pituitary and Adrenal Gland Problems
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nurse assesses clients for potential endocrine dysfunction. Which client is at greatest risk for a deficiency of gonadotropin and growth hormone?
a. A 36-year-old female who has used oral contraceptives for 5 years
b. A 42-year-old male who experienced head trauma 3 years ago
c. A 55-year-old female with a severe allergy to shellfish and iodine
d. A 64-year-old male with adult-onset diabetes mellitus
ANS: B
Gonadotropin and growth hormone are anterior pituitary hormones. Head trauma is a common cause of anterior pituitary hypofunction. The other factors do not increase the risk of this condition.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1267
KEY: Pituitary disorder| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

2. A nurse plans care for a client with a growth hormone deficiency. Which action should the nurse include in this clients plan of care?
a. Avoid intramuscular medications.
b. Place the client in protective isolation.
c. Use a lift sheet to re-position the client.
d. Assist the client to dangle before rising.
ANS: C
In adults, growth hormone is necessary to maintain bone density and strength. Adults with growth hormone deficiency have thin, fragile bones. Avoiding IM medications, using protective isolation, and assisting the client as he or she moves from sitting to standing will not serve as safety measures when the client is deficient in growth hormone.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1267
KEY: Pituitary disorder| safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

3. A nurse cares for a male client with hypopituitarism who is prescribed testosterone hormone replacement therapy. The client asks, How long will I need to take this medication? How should the nurse respond?
a. When your blood levels of testosterone are normal, the therapy is no longer needed.
b. When your beard thickens and your voice deepens, the dose is decreased, but treatment will continue forever.
c. When your sperm count is high enough to demonstrate fertility, you will no longer need this therapy.
d. With age, testosterone levels naturally decrease, so the medication can be stopped when you are 50 years old.
ANS: B
Testosterone therapy is initiated with high-dose testosterone derivatives and is continued until virilization is achieved. The dose is then decreased, but therapy continues throughout life. Therapy will continue throughout life; therefore, it will not be discontinued when blood levels are normal, at the age of 50 years, or when sperm counts are high.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1268
KEY: Pituitary disorder| medications MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

4. A nurse cares for a client after a pituitary gland stimulation test using insulin. The clients post-stimulation laboratory results indicate elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). How should the nurse interpret these results?
a. Pituitary hypofunction
b. Pituitary hyperfunction
c. Pituitary-induced diabetes mellitus
d. Normal pituitary response to insulin
ANS: D
Some tests for pituitary function involve administering agents that are known to stimulate the secretion of specific pituitary hormones and then measuring the response. Such tests are termed stimulation tests. The stimulation test for GH or ACTH assessment involves injecting the client with regular insulin (0.05 to 1 unit/kg of body weight) and checking circulating levels of GH and ACTH. The presence of insulin in clients with normal pituitary function causes increased release of GH and ACTH.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1275
KEY: Pituitary disorder| laboratory values
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. After teaching a client with acromegaly who is scheduled for a hypophysectomy, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. I will no longer need to limit my fluid intake after surgery.
b. I am glad no visible incision will result from this surgery.
c. I hope I can go back to wearing size 8 shoes instead of size 12.
d. I will wear slip-on shoes after surgery to limit bending over.
ANS: C
Although removal of the tissue that is oversecreting hormones can relieve many symptoms of hyperpituitarism, skeletal changes and organ enlargement are not reversible. It will be appropriate for the client to drink as needed postoperatively and avoid bending over. The client can be reassured that the incision will not be visible.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1270
KEY: Pituitary disorder| preoperative nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

6. A nurse assesses a client who is recovering from a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. The nurse notes nuchal rigidity. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Encourage range-of-motion exercises.
b. Document the finding and monitor the client.
c. Take vital signs, including temperature.
d. Assess pain and administer pain medication.
ANS: C
Nuchal rigidity is a major manifestation of meningitis, a potential postoperative complication associated with this surgery. Meningitis is an infection; usually the client will also have a fever and tachycardia. Range-of-motion exercises are inappropriate because meningitis is a possibility. Documentation should be done after all assessments are completed and should not be the only action. Although pain medication may be a palliative measure, it is not the most appropriate initial action.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1270
KEY: Pituitary disorder| postoperative nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

7. After teaching a client who is recovering from an endoscopic trans-nasal hypophysectomy, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the teaching?
a. I will wear dark glasses to prevent sun exposure.
b. Ill keep food on upper shelves so I do not have to bend over.
c. I must wash the incision with peroxide and redress it daily.
d. I shall cough and deep breathe every 2 hours while I am awake.
ANS: B
After this surgery, the client must take care to avoid activities that can increase intracranial pressure. The client should avoid bending from the waist and should not bear down, cough, or lie flat. With this approach, there is no incision to clean and dress. Protection from sun exposure is not necessary after this procedure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1270
KEY: Pituitary disorder| postoperative nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. A nurse cares for a client who possibly has syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The clients serum sodium level is 114 mEq/L. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Consult with the dietitian about increased dietary sodium.
b. Restrict the clients fluid intake to 600 mL/day.
c. Handle the client gently by using turn sheets for re-positioning.
d. Instruct unlicensed assistive personnel to measure intake and output.
ANS: B
With SIADH, clients often have dilutional hyponatremia. The client needs a fluid restriction, sometimes to as little as 500 to 600 mL/24 hr. Adding sodium to the clients diet will not help if he or she is retaining fluid and diluting the sodium. The client is not at increased risk for fracture, so gentle handling is not an issue. The client should be on intake and output; however, this will monitor only the clients intake, so it is not the best answer. Reducing intake will help increase the clients sodium.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1272
KEY: Pituitary disorder| electrolyte imbalance
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

9. A nurse plans care for a client with Cushings disease. Which action should the nurse include in this clients plan of care to prevent injury?
a. Pad the siderails of the clients bed.
b. Assist the client to change positions slowly.
c. Use a lift sheet to change the clients position.
d. Keep suctioning equipment at the clients bedside.
ANS: C
Cushings syndrome or disease greatly increases the serum levels of cortisol, which contributes to excessive bone demineralization and increases the risk for pathologic bone fracture. Padding the siderails and assisting the client to change position may be effective, but these measures will not protect him or her as much as using a lift sheet. The client should not require suctioning.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1278
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

10. A nurse is caring for a client who was prescribed high-dose corticosteroid therapy for 1 month to treat a severe inflammatory condition. The clients symptoms have now resolved and the client asks, When can I stop taking these medications? How should the nurse respond?
a. It is possible for the inflammation to recur if you stop the medication.
b. Once you start corticosteroids, you have to be weaned off them.
c. You must decrease the dose slowly so your hormones will work again.
d. The drug suppresses your immune system, which must be built back up.
ANS: B
One of the most common causes of adrenal insufficiency, a life-threatening problem, is the sudden cessation of long-term, high-dose corticosteroid therapy. This therapy suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and must be withdrawn gradually to allow for pituitary production of adrenocorticotropic hormone and adrenal production of cortisol. Decreasing hormone therapy slowly ensures self-production of hormone, not hormone effectiveness. Building the clients immune system and rebound inflammation are not concerns related to stopping high-dose corticosteroids.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1281
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| steroid| medication safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

11. A nurse cares for a client with adrenal hyperfunction. The client screams at her husband, bursts into tears, and throws her water pitcher against the wall. She then tells the nurse, I feel like I am going crazy. How should the nurse respond?
a. I will ask your doctor to order a psychiatric consult for you.
b. You feel this way because of your hormone levels.
c. Can I bring you information about support groups?
d. I will close the door to your room and restrict visitors.
ANS: B
Hypercortisolism can cause the client to show neurotic or psychotic behavior. The client needs to know that these behavior changes do not reflect a true psychiatric disorder and will resolve when therapy results in lower and steadier blood cortisol levels. The client needs to understand this effect and does not need a psychiatrist, support groups, or restricted visitors at this time.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1278
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| psychosocial response
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

12. A client with hyperaldosteronism is being treated with spironolactone (Aldactone) before surgery. Which precautions does the nurse teach this client?
a. Read the label before using salt substitutes.
b. Do not add salt to your food when you eat.
c. Avoid exposure to sunlight.
d. Take Tylenol instead of aspirin for pain.
ANS: A
Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to control potassium levels. Its use can lead to hyperkalemia. Although the goal is to increase the clients potassium, unknowingly adding potassium can cause complications. Some salt substitutes are composed of potassium chloride and should be avoided by clients on spironolactone therapy. Depending on the client, he or she may benefit from a low-sodium diet before surgery, but this may not be necessary. Avoiding sunlight and Tylenol is not necessary.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1282
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| medication safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

13. A nurse cares for a client with chronic hypercortisolism. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Wash hands when entering the room.
b. Keep the client in airborne isolation.
c. Observe the client for signs of infection.
d. Assess the clients daily chest x-ray.
ANS: A
Excess cortisol reduces the number of circulating lymphocytes, inhibits maturation of macrophages, reduces antibody synthesis, and inhibits production of cytokines and inflammatory chemicals. As a result, these clients are at greater risk of infection and may not have the expected inflammatory manifestations when an infection is present. The nurse needs to take precautions to decrease the clients risk. It is not necessary to keep the client in isolation. The client does not need a daily chest x-ray.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1278
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| infection control
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

14. A nurse cares for a client who is recovering from a hypophysectomy. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Keep the head of the bed flat and the client supine.
b. Instruct the client to cough, turn, and deep breathe.
c. Report clear or light yellow drainage from the nose.
d. Apply petroleum jelly to lips to avoid dryness.
ANS: C
A light yellow drainage or a halo effect on the dressing is indicative of a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The client should have the head of the bed elevated after surgery. Although deep breathing is important postoperatively, coughing should be avoided to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Although application of petroleum jelly to the lips will help with dryness, this instruction is not as important as reporting the yellowish drainage.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1270
KEY: Pituitary disorder| postoperative nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

15. A nurse teaches a client with a cortisol deficiency who is prescribed prednisone (Deltasone). Which statement should the nurse include in this clients instructions?
a. You will need to learn how to rotate the injection sites.
b. If you work outside in the heat, you may need another drug.
c. You need to follow a diet with strict sodium restrictions.
d. Take one tablet in the morning and two tablets at night.
ANS: B
Steroid dosage adjustment may be needed if the client works outdoors and might be difficult, especially in hot weather, when the client is sweating a great deal more than normal. Clients take prednisone orally, have no need for a salt restriction, and usually start the regimen with two tablets in the morning and one at night.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1274
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| steroid| medication safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

16. An emergency nurse cares for a client who is experiencing an acute adrenal crisis. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Obtain intravenous access.
b. Administer hydrocortisone succinate (Solu-Cortef).
c. Assess blood glucose.
d. Administer insulin and dextrose.
ANS: A
All actions are appropriate for the client with adrenal crisis. However, therapy is given intravenously, so the priority is to establish IV access. Solu-Cortef is the drug of choice. Blood glucose is monitored hourly and treatment is provided as needed. Insulin and dextrose are used to treat any hyperkalemia.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1274
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| emergency nursing
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse assesses a client with anterior pituitary hyperfunction. Which clinical manifestations should the nurse expect? (Select all that apply.)
a. Protrusion of the lower jaw
b. High-pitched voice
c. Enlarged hands and feet
d. Kyphosis
e. Barrel-shaped chest
f. Excessive sweating
ANS: A, C, D, E, F
Anterior pituitary hyperfunction typically will cause protrusion of the lower jaw, deepening of the voice, enlarged hands and feet, kyphosis, barrel-shaped chest, and excessive sweating.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1269
KEY: Pituitary disorder| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. A nurse assesses clients with potential endocrine disorders. Which clients are at high risk for hypopituitarism? (Select all that apply.)
a. A 20-year-old female with benign pituitary tumors
b. A 32-year-old male with diplopia
c. A 41-year-old female with anorexia nervosa
d. A 55-year-old male with hypertension
e. A 60-year-old female who is experiencing shock
f. A 68-year-old male who has gained weight recently
ANS: A, C, D, E
Pituitary tumors, anorexia nervosa, hypertension, and shock are all conditions that can cause hypopituitarism. Diplopia is a manifestation of hypopituitarism, and weight gain is a manifestation of Cushings disease and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. They are not risk factors for hypopituitarism.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1267
KEY: Pituitary disorder| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

3. A nurse assesses a client who potentially has hyperaldosteronism. Which serum laboratory values should the nurse associate with this disorder? (Select all that apply.)
a. Sodium: 150 mEq/L
b. Sodium: 130 mEq/L
c. Potassium: 2.5 mEq/L
d. Potassium: 5.0 mEq/L
e. pH: 7.28
f. pH: 7.50
ANS: A, C, E
Aldosterone increases reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium. Hyperaldosteronism causes hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are manifestations of adrenal insufficiency.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1272
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| laboratory values
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. A nurse teaches a client with Cushings disease. Which dietary requirements should the nurse include in this clients teaching? (Select all that apply.)
a. Low calcium
b. Low carbohydrate
c. Low protein
d. Low calories
e. Low sodium
ANS: B, D, E
The client with Cushings disease has weight gain, muscle loss, hyperglycemia, and sodium retention. Dietary modifications need to include reduction of carbohydrates and total calories to prevent or reduce the degree of hyperglycemia. Sodium retention causes water retention and hypertension. Clients are encouraged to restrict their sodium intake moderately. Clients often have bone density loss and need more calcium. Increased protein intake will help decrease muscle loss.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1279
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| laboratory values
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

5. A nurse cares for a client who is prescribed vasopressin (DDAVP) for diabetes insipidus. Which assessment findings indicate a therapeutic response to this therapy? (Select all that apply.)
a. Urine output is increased.
b. Urine output is decreased.
c. Specific gravity is increased.
d. Specific gravity is decreased.
e. Urine osmolality is increased.
f. Urine osmolality is decreased.
ANS: A, D, F
Diabetes insipidus causes urine output to be greatly increased, with a low urine osmolality, as evidenced by a low specific gravity. Effective treatment results in decreased urine output that is more concentrated, as evidenced by an increased specific gravity.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1272
KEY: Pituitary disorder| laboratory values
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

6. A nurse assesses clients with potential endocrine disorders. Which clients are at high risk for adrenal insufficiency? (Select all that apply.)
a. A 22-year-old female with metastatic cancer
b. A 43-year-old male with tuberculosis
c. A 51-year-old female with asthma
d. A 65-year-old male with gram-negative sepsis
e. A 70-year-old female with hypertension
ANS: A, B, D
Metastatic cancer, tuberculosis, and gram-negative sepsis are primary causes of adrenal insufficiency. Active tuberculosis is a contributing factor for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Hypertension is a key manifestation of Cushings disease. These are not risk factors for adrenal insufficiency.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1269
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

7. A nurse assesses a client with Cushings disease. Which assessment findings should the nurse correlate with this disorder? (Select all that apply.)
a. Moon face
b. Weight loss
c. Hypotension
d. Petechiae
e. Muscle atrophy
ANS: A, D, E
Clinical manifestations of Cushings disease include moon face, weight gain, hypertension, petechiae, and muscle atrophy.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 1278
KEY: Adrenal gland disorder| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

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