Chapter 67 Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

A patient has had an ischemic stroke and has been admitted to the medical unit. What action should the nurse perform to best prevent joint deformities?

A)

Place the patient in the prone position for 30 minutes/day.

B)

Assist the patient in acutely flexing the thigh to promote movement.

C)

Place a pillow in the axilla when there is limited external rotation.

D)

Place patients hand in pronation.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A pillow in the axilla prevents adduction of the affected shoulder and keeps the arm away from the chest. The prone position with a pillow under the pelvis, not flat, promotes hyperextension of the hip joints, essential for normal gait. To promote venous return and prevent edema, the upper thigh should not be flexed acutely. The hand is placed in slight supination, not pronation, which is its most functional position.

2.

A patient diagnosed with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) is scheduled for a carotid endarterectomy. The nurse explains that this procedure will be done for what purpose?

A)

To decrease cerebral edema

B)

To prevent seizure activity that is common following a TIA

C)

To remove atherosclerotic plaques blocking cerebral flow

D)

To determine the cause of the TIA

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The main surgical procedure for select patients with TIAs is carotid endarterectomy, the removal of an atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus from the carotid artery to prevent stroke in

patients with occlusive disease of the extracranial arteries. An endarterectomy does not decrease cerebral edema, prevent seizure activity, or determine the cause of a TIA.

3.

The nurse is discharging home a patient who suffered a stroke. He has a flaccid right arm and leg and is experiencing problems with urinary incontinence. The nurse makes a referral to a home health nurse because of an awareness of what common patient response to a change in body image?

A)

Denial

B)

Fear

C)

Depression

D)

Disassociation

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Depression is a common and serious problem in the patient who has had a stroke. It can result from a profound disruption in his or her life and changes in total function, leaving the patient with a loss of independence. The nurse needs to encourage the patient to verbalize feelings to assess the effect of the stroke on self-esteem. Denial, fear, and disassociation are not the most common patient response to a change in body image, although each can occur in some patients.

4.

When caring for a patient who had a hemorrhagic stroke, close monitoring of vital signs and neurologic changes is imperative. What is the earliest sign of deterioration in a patient with a hemorrhagic stroke of which the nurse should be aware?

A)

Generalized pain

B)

Alteration in level of consciousness (LOC)

C)

Tonicclonic seizures

D)

Shortness of breath

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Alteration in LOC is the earliest sign of deterioration in a patient after a hemorrhagic stroke, such as mild drowsiness, slight slurring of speech, and sluggish papillary reaction. Sudden headache may occur, but generalized pain is less common. Seizures and shortness of breath are not identified as early signs of hemorrhagic stroke.

5.

The nurse is performing stroke risk screenings at a hospital open house. The nurse has identified four patients who might be at risk for a stroke. Which patient is likely at the highest risk for a hemorrhagic stroke?

A)

White female, age 60, with history of excessive alcohol intake

B)

White male, age 60, with history of uncontrolled hypertension

C)

Black male, age 60, with history of diabetes

D)

Black male, age 50, with history of smoking

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Uncontrolled hypertension is the primary cause of a hemorrhagic stroke. Control of hypertension, especially in individuals over 55 years of age, clearly reduces the risk for hemorrhagic stroke. Additional risk factors are increased age, male gender, and excessive alcohol intake. Another high-risk group includes African Americans, where the incidence of first stroke is almost twice that as in Caucasians.

6.

A patient who just suffered a suspected ischemic stroke is brought to the ED by ambulance. On what should the nurses primary assessment focus?

A)

Cardiac and respiratory status

B)

Seizure activity

C)

Pain

D)

Fluid and electrolyte balance

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Acute care begins with managing ABCs. Patients may have difficulty keeping an open and clear airway secondary to decreased LOC. Neurologic assessment with close monitoring for signs of increased neurologic deficit and seizure activity occurs next. Fluid and electrolyte balance must be controlled carefully with the goal of adequate hydration to promote perfusion and decrease further brain activity.

7.

A patient with a cerebral aneurysm exhibits signs and symptoms of an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). What nursing intervention would be most appropriate for this patient?

A)

Range-of-motion exercises to prevent contractures

B)

Encouraging independence with ADLs to promote recovery

C)

Early initiation of physical therapy

D)

Absolute bed rest in a quiet, nonstimulating environment

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient is placed on immediate and absolute bed rest in a quiet, nonstressful environment because activity, pain, and anxiety elevate BP, which increases the risk for bleeding. Visitors are restricted. The nurse administers all personal care. The patient is fed and bathed to prevent any exertion that might raise BP.

8.

A patient recovering from a stroke has severe shoulder pain from subluxation of the shoulder and is being cared for on the unit. To prevent further injury and pain, the nurse caring for this patient is aware of what principle of care?

A)

The patient should be fitted with a cast because use of a sling should be avoided due to adduction of the affected shoulder.

B)

Elevation of the arm and hand can lead to further complications associated with edema.

C)

Passively exercising the affected extremity is avoided in order to minimize pain.

D)

The patient should be taught to interlace fingers, place palms together, and slowly bring scapulae forward to avoid excessive force to shoulder.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

To prevent shoulder pain, the nurse should never lift a patient by the flaccid shoulder or pull on the affected arm or shoulder. The patient is taught how to move and exercise the affected arm/shoulder through proper movement and positioning. The patient is instructed to interlace the fingers, place the palms together, and push the clasped hands slowly forward to bring the scapulae forward; he or she then raises both hands above the head. This is repeated throughout the day. The use of a properly worn sling when the patient is out of bed prevents the paralyzed upper extremity from dangling without support. Range-of-motion exercises are still vitally important in preventing a frozen shoulder and ultimately atrophy of subcutaneous tissues, which can cause more pain. Elevation of the arm and hand is also important in preventing dependent edema of the hand.

9.

The patient has been diagnosed with aphasia after suffering a stroke. What can the nurse do to best make the patients atmosphere more conducive to communication?

A)

Provide a board of commonly used needs and phrases.

B)

Have the patient speak to loved ones on the phone daily.

C)

Help the patient complete his or her sentences.

D)

Speak in a loud and deliberate voice to the patient.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The inability to talk on the telephone or answer a question or exclusion from conversation causes anger, frustration, fear of the future, and hopelessness. A common pitfall is for the nurse or other health care team member to complete the thoughts or sentences of the patient. This should be avoided because it may cause the patient to feel more frustrated at not being allowed to speak and may deter efforts to practice putting thoughts together and completing a sentence. The patient may also benefit from a communication board, which has pictures of commonly requested needs and phrases. The board may be translated into several languages.

10.

The nurse is assessing a patient with a suspected stroke. What assessment finding is most suggestive of a stroke?

A)

Facial droop

B)

Dysrhythmias

C)

Periorbital edema

D)

Projectile vomiting

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Facial drooping or asymmetry is a classic abnormal finding on a physical assessment that may be associated with a stroke. Facial edema is not suggestive of a stroke and patients less commonly experience dysrhythmias or vomiting.

11.

The nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with an ischemic stroke and knows that effective positioning of the patient is important. Which of the following should be integrated into the patients plan of care?

A)

The patients hip joint should be maintained in a flexed position.

B)

The patient should be in a supine position unless ambulating.

C)

The patient should be placed in a prone position for 15 to 30 minutes several times a day.

D)

The patient should be placed in a Trendelenberg position two to three times daily to promote cerebral perfusion.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

If possible, the patient is placed in a prone position for 15 to 30 minutes several times a day. A small pillow or a support is placed under the pelvis, extending from the level of the umbilicus to the upper third of the thigh. This helps to promote hyperextension of the hip joints, which is essential for normal gait, and helps prevent knee and hip flexion contractures. The hip joints should not be maintained in flexion and the Trendelenberg position is not indicated.

12.

A patient has been admitted to the ICU after being recently diagnosed with an aneurysm and the patients admission orders include specific aneurysm precautions. What nursing action will the nurse incorporate into the patients plan of care?

A)

Elevate the head of the bed to 45 degrees.

B)

Maintain the patient on complete bed rest.

C)

Administer enemas when the patient is constipated.

D)

Avoid use of thigh-high elastic compression stockings.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Cerebral aneurysm precautions are implemented for the patient with a diagnosis of aneurysm to provide a nonstimulating environment, prevent increases in ICP, and prevent further bleeding. The patient is placed on immediate and absolute bed rest in a quiet, nonstressful environment because activity, pain, and anxiety elevate BP, which increases the risk for bleeding. Visitors, except for family, are restricted. The head of the bed is elevated 15 to 30 degrees to promote venous drainage and decrease ICP. Some neurologists, however, prefer that the patient remains flat to increase cerebral perfusion. No enemas are permitted, but stool softeners and mild laxatives are prescribed. Thigh-high elastic compression stockings or sequential compression boots may be ordered to decrease the patients risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

13.

A nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with a hemorrhagic stroke. When creating this patients plan of care, what goal should be prioritized?

A)

Prevent complications of immobility.

B)

Maintain and improve cerebral tissue perfusion.

C)

Relieve anxiety and pain.

D)

Relieve sensory deprivation.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Each of the listed goals is appropriate in the care of a patient recovering from a stroke. However, promoting cerebral perfusion is a priority physiologic need, on which the patients survival depends.

14.

The nurse is preparing health education for a patient who is being discharged after hospitalization for a hemorrhagic stroke. What content should the nurse include in this education?

A)

Mild, intermittent seizures can be expected.

B)

Take ibuprofen for complaints of a serious headache.

C)

Take antihypertensive medication as ordered.

D)

Drowsiness is normal for the first week after discharge.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The patient and family are provided with information that will enable them to cooperate with the care and restrictions required during the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke and to prepare the patient to return home. Patient and family teaching includes information about the causes of hemorrhagic stroke and its possible consequences. Symptoms of hydrocephalus include gradual onset of drowsiness and behavioral changes. Hypertension is the most serious risk factor, suggesting that appropriate antihypertensive treatment is essential for a patient being discharged. Seizure activity is not normal; complaints of a serious headache should be reported to the physician before any medication is taken. Drowsiness is not normal or expected.

15.

A patient diagnosed with a cerebral aneurysm reports a severe headache to the nurse. What action is a priority for the nurse?

A)

Sit with the patient for a few minutes.

B)

Administer an analgesic.

C)

Inform the nurse-manager.

D)

Call the physician immediately.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

A headache may be an indication that the aneurysm is leaking. The nurse should notify the physician immediately. The physician will decide whether administration of an analgesic is indicated. Informing the nurse-manager is not necessary. Sitting with the patient is appropriate, once the physician has been notified of the change in the patients condition.

16.

A patient is brought by ambulance to the ED after suffering what the family thinks is a stroke. The nurse caring for this patient is aware that an absolute contraindication for thrombolytic therapy is what?

A)

Evidence of hemorrhagic stroke

B)

Blood pressure of 180/110 mm Hg

C)

Evidence of stroke evolution

D)

Previous thrombolytic therapy within the past 12 months

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Thrombolytic therapy would exacerbate a hemorrhagic stroke with potentially fatal consequences. Stroke evolution, high BP, or previous thrombolytic therapy does not contraindicate its safe and effective use.

17.

When caring for a patient who has had a stroke, a priority is reduction of ICP. What patient position is most consistent with this goal?

A)

Head turned slightly to the right side

B)

Elevation of the head of the bed

C)

Position changes every 15 minutes while awake

D)

Extension of the neck

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Elevation of the head of the bed promotes venous drainage and lowers ICP; the nurse should avoid flexing or extending the neck or turning the head side to side. The head should be in a neutral midline position. Excessively frequent position changes are unnecessary.

18.

A patient who suffered an ischemic stroke now has disturbed sensory perception. What principle should guide the nurses care of this patient?

A)

The patient should be approached on the side where visual perception is intact.

B)

Attention to the affected side should be minimized in order to decrease anxiety.

C)

The patient should avoid turning in the direction of the defective visual field to minimize shoulder subluxation.

D)

The patient should be approached on the opposite side of where the visual perception is intact to promote recovery.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Patients with decreased field of vision should first be approached on the side where visual perception is intact. All visual stimuli should be placed on this side. The patient can and should be taught to turn the head in the direction of the defective visual field to compensate for this loss. The nurse should constantly remind the patient of the other side of the body and should later stand at a position that encourages the patient to move or turn to visualize who and what is in the room.

19.

What should be included in the patients care plan when establishing an exercise program for a patient affected by a stroke?

A)

Schedule passive range of motion every other day.

B)

Keep activity limited, as the patient may be over stimulated.

C)

Have the patient perform active range-of-motion (ROM) exercises once a day.

D)

Exercise the affected extremities passively four or five times a day.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The affected extremities are exercised passively and put through a full ROM four or five times a day to maintain joint mobility, regain motor control, prevent development of a contracture in the paralyzed extremity, prevent further deterioration of the neuromuscular system, and enhance circulation. Active ROM exercises should ideally be performed more than once per day.

20.

A female patient is diagnosed with a right-sided stroke. The patient is now experiencing hemianopsia. How might the nurse help the patient manage her potential sensory and perceptional difficulties?

A)

Keep the lighting in the patients room low.

B)

Place the patients clock on the affected side.

C)

Approach the patient on the side where vision is impaired.

D)

Place the patients extremities where she can see them.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient with homonymous hemianopsia (loss of half of the visual field) turns away from the affected side of the body and tends to neglect that side and the space on that side; this is called amorphosynthesis. In such instances, the patient cannot see food on half of the tray, and only half of the room is visible. It is important for the nurse to remind the patient constantly of the other side of the body, to maintain alignment of the extremities, and if possible, to place the extremities where the patient can see them. Patients with a decreased field of vision should be approached on the side where visual perception is intact. All visual stimuli (clock, calendar, and television) should be placed on this side. The patient can be taught to turn the head in the direction of the defective visual field to compensate for this loss. Increasing the natural or artificial lighting in the room and providing eyeglasses are important in increasing vision. There is no reason to keep the lights dim.

21.

The public health nurse is planning a health promotion campaign that reflects current epidemiologic trends. The nurse should know that hemorrhagic stroke currently accounts for what percentage of total strokes in the United States?

A)

43%

B)

33%

C)

23%

D)

13%

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Strokes can be divided into two major categories: ischemic (87%), in which vascular occlusion and significant hypoperfusion occur, and hemorrhagic (13%), in which there is extravasation of blood into the brain or subarachnoid space.

22.

A patient who has experienced an ischemic stroke has been admitted to the medical unit. The patients family in adamant that she remain on bed rest to hasten her recovery and to conserve energy. What principle of care should inform the nurses response to the family?

A)

The patient should mobilize as soon as she is physically able.

B)

To prevent contractures and muscle atrophy, bed rest should not exceed 4 weeks.

C)

The patient should remain on bed rest until she expresses a desire to mobilize.

D)

Lack of mobility will greatly increase the patients risk of stroke recurrence.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

As soon as possible, the patient is assisted out of bed and an active rehabilitation program is started. Delaying mobility causes complications, but not necessarily stroke recurrence. Mobility should not be withheld until the patient initiates.

23.

A patient has recently begun mobilizing during the recovery from an ischemic stroke. To protect the patients safety during mobilization, the nurse should perform what action?

A)

Support the patients full body weight with a waist belt during ambulation.

B)

Have a colleague follow the patient closely with a wheelchair.

C)

Avoid mobilizing the patient in the early morning or late evening.

D)

Ensure that the patients family members do not participate in mobilization.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

During mobilization, a chair or wheelchair should be readily available in case the patient suddenly becomes fatigued or feels dizzy. The family should be encouraged to participate, as appropriate, and the nurse should not have to support the patients full body weight. Morning and evening activity are not necessarily problematic.

24.

A patient diagnosed with a hemorrhagic stroke has been admitted to the neurologic ICU. The nurse knows that teaching for the patient and family needs to begin as soon as the patient is settled on the unit and will continue until the patient is discharged. What will family education need to include?

A)

How to differentiate between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke

B)

Risk factors for ischemic stroke

C)

How to correctly modify the home environment

D)

Techniques for adjusting the patients medication dosages at home

Ans:

C

Feedback:

For a patient with a hemorrhagic stroke, teaching addresses the use of assistive devices or modification of the home environment to help the patient live with the disability. This is more important to the patients needs than knowing about risk factors for ischemic stroke. It is not necessary for the family to differentiate between different types of strokes. Medication regimens should never be altered without consultation.

25.

After a subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patients laboratory results indicate a serum sodium level of less than 126 mEq/L. What is the nurses most appropriate action?

A)

Administer a bolus of normal saline as ordered.

B)

Prepare the patient for thrombolytic therapy as ordered.

C)

Facilitate testing for hypothalamic dysfunction.

D)

Prepare to administer 3% NaCl by IV as ordered.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient may be experiencing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. The treatment most often is the use of IV hypertonic 3% saline. A normal saline bolus would exacerbate the problem and there is no indication for tests of hypothalamic function or thrombolytic therapy.

26.

A community health nurse is giving an educational presentation about stroke and heart disease at the local senior citizens center. What nonmodifiable risk factor for stroke should the nurse cite?

A)

Female gender

B)

Asian American race

C)

Advanced age

D)

Smoking

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Advanced age, male gender, and race are well-known nonmodifiable risk factors for stroke. High-risk groups include people older than 55 years of age; the incidence of stroke more than doubles in each successive decade. Men have a higher rate of stroke than that of women. Another high-risk group is African Americans; the incidence of first stroke in African Americans is almost twice that as in Caucasian Americans; Asian American race is not a risk factor. Smoking is a modifiable risk.

27.

A family member brings the patient to the clinic for a follow-up visit after a stroke. The family member asks the nurse what he can do to decrease his chance of having another stroke. What would be the nurses best answer?

A)

Have your heart checked regularly.

B)

Stop smoking as soon as possible.

C)

Get medication to bring down your sodium levels.

D)

Eat a nutritious diet.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Smoking is a modifiable and highly significant risk factor for stroke. The significance of smoking, and the potential benefits of quitting, exceed the roles of sodium, diet, and regular medical assessments.

28.

The nurse is reviewing the medication administration record of a female patient who possesses numerous risk factors for stroke. Which of the womans medications carries the greatest potential for reducing her risk of stroke?

A)

Naproxen 250 PO b.i.d.

B)

Calcium carbonate 1,000 mg PO b.i.d.

C)

Aspirin 81 mg PO o.d.

D)

Lorazepam 1 mg SL b.i.d. PRN

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Research findings suggest that low-dose aspirin may lower the risk of stroke in women who are at risk. Naproxen, lorazepam, and calcium supplements do not have this effect.

29.

A nurse in the ICU is providing care for a patient who has been admitted with a hemorrhagic stroke. The nurse is performing frequent neurologic assessments and observes that the patient is becoming progressively more drowsy over the course of the day. What is the nurses best response to this assessment finding?

A)

Report this finding to the physician as an indication of decreased metabolism.

B)

Provide more stimulation to the patient and monitor the patient closely.

C)

Recognize this as the expected clinical course of a hemorrhagic stroke.

D)

Report this to the physician as a possible sign of clinical deterioration.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Alteration in LOC often is the earliest sign of deterioration in a patient with a hemorrhagic stroke. Drowsiness and slight slurring of speech may be early signs that the LOC is deteriorating. This finding is unlikely to be the result of metabolic changes and it is not expected. Stimulating a patient with an acute stroke is usually contraindicated.

30.

Following diagnostic testing, a patient has been admitted to the ICU and placed on cerebral aneurysm precautions. What nursing action should be included in patients plan of care?

A)

Supervise the patients activities of daily living closely.

B)

Initiate early ambulation to prevent complications of immobility.

C)

Provide a high-calorie, low-protein diet.

D)

Perform all of the patients hygiene and feeding.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The patient is placed on immediate and absolute bed rest in a quiet, nonstressful environment, because activity, pain, and anxiety elevate BP, which increases the risk for bleeding. As such, independent ADLs and ambulation are contraindicated. There is no need for a high-calorie or low-protein diet.

31.

A preceptor is discussing stroke with a new nurse on the unit. The preceptor would tell the new nurse which cardiac dysrhythmia is associated with cardiogenic embolic strokes?

A)

Ventricular tachycardia

B)

Atrial fibrillation

C)

Supraventricular tachycardia

D)

Bundle branch block

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Cardiogenic embolic strokes are associated with cardiac dysrhythmias, usually atrial fibrillation. The other listed dysrhythmias are less commonly associated with this type of stroke.

32.

The pathophysiology of an ischemic stroke involves the ischemic cascade, which includes the following steps:

1. Change in pH

2. Blood flow decreases

3. A switch to anaerobic respiration

4. Membrane pumps fail

5. Cells cease to function

6. Lactic acid is generated

Put these steps in order in which they occur.

A)

635241

B)

352416

C)

236145

D)

162534

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The ischemic cascade begins when cerebral blood flow decreases to less than 25 mL per 100 g of blood per minute. At this point, neurons are no longer able to maintain aerobic respiration. The mitochondria must then switch to anaerobic respiration, which generates large amounts of lactic acid, causing a change in the pH. This switch to the less efficient anaerobic respiration also renders the neuron incapable of producing sufficient quantities of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to fuel the depolarization processes. The membrane pumps that maintain electrolyte balances begin to fail, and the cells cease to function.

33.

As a member of the stroke team, the nurse knows that thrombolytic therapy carries the potential for benefit and for harm. The nurse should be cognizant of what contraindications for thrombolytic therapy? Select all that apply.

A)

INR above 1.0

B)

Recent intracranial pathology

C)

Sudden symptom onset

D)

Current anticoagulation therapy

E)

Symptom onset greater than 3 hours prior to admission

Ans:

B, D, E

Feedback:

Some of the absolute contraindications for thrombolytic therapy include symptom onset greater than 3 hours before admission, a patient who is anticoagulated (with an INR above 1.7), or a patient who has recently had any type of intracranial pathology (e.g., previous stroke, head injury, trauma).

34.

After a major ischemic stroke, a possible complication is cerebral edema. Nursing care during the immediate recovery period from an ischemic stroke should include which of the following?

A)

Positioning to avoid hypoxia

B)

Maximizing PaCO2

C)

Administering hypertonic IV solution

D)

Initiating early mobilization

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Interventions during this period include measures to reduce ICP, such as administering an osmotic diuretic (e.g., mannitol), maintaining the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) within the range of 30 to 35 mm Hg, and positioning to avoid hypoxia. Hypertonic IV solutions are not used unless sodium depletion is evident. Mobilization would take place after the immediate threat of increased ICP has past.

35.

The nurse is caring for a patient recovering from an ischemic stroke. What intervention best addresses a potential complication after an ischemic stroke?

A)

Providing frequent small meals rather than three larger meals

B)

Teaching the patient to perform deep breathing and coughing exercises

C)

Keeping a urinary catheter in situ for the full duration of recovery

D)

Limiting intake of insoluble fiber

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Because pneumonia is a potential complication of stroke, deep breathing and coughing exercises should be encouraged unless contraindicated. No particular need exists to provide frequent meals and normally fiber intake should not be restricted. Urinary catheters should be discontinued as soon as possible.

36.

During a patients recovery from stroke, the nurse should be aware of predictors of stroke outcome in order to help patients and families set realistic goals. What are the predictors of stroke outcome? Select all that apply.

A)

National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score

B)

Race

C)

LOC at time of admission

D)

Gender

E)

Age

Ans:

A, C, E

Feedback:

It is helpful for clinicians to be knowledgeable about the relative importance of predictors of stroke outcome (age, NIHSS score, and LOC at time of admission) to provide stroke survivors and their families with realistic goals. Race and gender are not predictors of stroke outcome.

37.

A nursing student is writing a care plan for a newly admitted patient who has been diagnosed with a stroke. What major nursing diagnosis should most likely be included in the patients plan of care?

A)

Adult failure to thrive

B)

Post-trauma syndrome

C)

Hyperthermia

D)

Disturbed sensory perception

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient who has experienced a stroke is at a high risk for disturbed sensory perception. Stroke is associated with multiple other nursing diagnoses, but hyperthermia, adult failure to thrive, and post-trauma syndrome are not among these.

38.

When preparing to discharge a patient home, the nurse has met with the family and warned them that the patient may exhibit unexpected emotional responses. The nurse should teach the family that these responses are typically a result of what cause?

A)

Frustration around changes in function and communication

B)

Unmet physiologic needs

C)

Changes in brain activity during sleep and wakefulness

D)

Temporary changes in metabolism

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Emotional problems associated with stroke are often related to the new challenges around ADLs and communication. These challenges are more likely than metabolic changes, unmet physiologic needs, or changes in brain activity, each of which should be ruled out.

39.

A rehabilitation nurse caring for a patient who has had a stroke is approached by the patients family and asked why the patient has to do so much for herself when she is obviously struggling. What would be the nurses best answer?

A)

We are trying to help her be as useful as she possibly can.

B)

The focus on care in a rehabilitation facility is to help the patient to resume as much self-care as possible.

C)

We arent here to care for her the way the hospital staff did; we are here to help her get better so she can go home.

D)

Rehabilitation means helping patients do exactly what they did before their stroke.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

In both acute care and rehabilitation facilities, the focus is on teaching the patient to resume as much self-care as possible. The goal of rehabilitation is not to be useful, nor is it to return patients to their prestroke level of functioning, which may be unrealistic.

40.

A patient with a new diagnosis of ischemic stroke is deemed to be a candidate for treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and has been admitted to the ICU. In addition to closely monitoring the patients cardiac and neurologic status, the nurse monitors the patient for signs of what complication?

A)

Acute pain

B)

Septicemia

C)

Bleeding

D)

Seizures

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Bleeding is the most common side effect of t-PA administration, and the patient is closely monitored for any bleeding. Septicemia, pain, and seizures are much less likely to result from thrombolytic therapy.

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