Chapter 69: Nursing Management: Emergency, Terrorism, and Disaster Nursing Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 69: Nursing Management: Emergency, Terrorism, and Disaster Nursing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. During the primary assessment of a victim of a motor vehicle collision, the nurse determines that the patient is breathing and has an unobstructed airway. Which action should the nurse take next?

a.

Palpate extremities for bilateral pulses.

b.

Observe the patients respiratory effort.

c.

Check the patients level of consciousness.

d.

Examine the patient for any external bleeding.

ANS: B

Even with a patent airway, patients can have other problems that compromise ventilation, so the next action is to assess the patients breathing. The other actions are also part of the initial survey but assessment of breathing should be done immediately after assessing for airway patency.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1676

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. During the primary survey of a patient with severe leg trauma, the nurse observes that the patients left pedal pulse is absent and the leg is swollen. Which action will the nurse take next?

a.

Send blood to the lab for a complete blood count.

b.

Assess further for a cause of the decreased circulation.

c.

Finish the airway, breathing, circulation, disability survey.

d.

Start normal saline fluid infusion with a large-bore IV line.

ANS: D

The assessment data indicate that the patient may have arterial trauma and hemorrhage. When a possibly life-threatening injury is found during the primary survey, the nurse should immediately start interventions before proceeding with the survey. Although a complete blood count is indicated, administration of IV fluids should be started first. Completion of the primary survey and further assessment should be completed after the IV fluids are initiated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1676

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. After the return of spontaneous circulation following the resuscitation of a patient who had a cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia is ordered. Which action will the nurse include in the plan of care?

a.

Apply external cooling device.

b.

Check mental status every 15 minutes.

c.

Avoid the use of sedative medications.

d.

Rewarm if temperature is <91 F (32.8 C).

ANS: A

When therapeutic hypothermia is used postresuscitation, external cooling devices or cold normal saline infusions are used to rapidly lower body temperature to 89.6 F to 93.2 F (32 C to 34 C). Because hypothermia will decrease brain activity, assessing mental status every 15 minutes is not needed at this stage. Sedative medications are administered during therapeutic hypothermia.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1681

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. A patient who is unconscious after a fall from a ladder is transported to the emergency department by emergency medical personnel. During the primary survey of the patient, the nurse should

a.

obtain a complete set of vital signs.

b.

obtain a Glasgow Coma Scale score.

c.

ask about chronic medical conditions.

d.

attach a cardiac electrocardiogram monitor.

ANS: B

The Glasgow Coma Scale is included when assessing for disability during the primary survey. The other information is part of the secondary survey.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1676

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. A 19-year-old is brought to the emergency department (ED) with multiple lacerations and tissue avulsion of the left hand. When asked about tetanus immunization, the patient denies having any previous vaccinations. The nurse will anticipate giving

a.

tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) only.

b.

TIG and tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td).

c.

tetanus-diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine (Tdap) only.

d.

TIG and tetanus-diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine (Tdap).

ANS: D

For an adult with no previous tetanus immunizations, TIG and Tdap are recommended. The other immunizations are not sufficient for this patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1681

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A patient who has experienced blunt abdominal trauma during a motor vehicle collision is complaining of increasing abdominal pain. The nurse will plan to teach the patient about the purpose of

a.

peritoneal lavage.

b.

abdominal ultrasonography.

c.

nasogastric (NG) tube placement.

d.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

ANS: B

For patients who are at risk for intraabdominal bleeding, focused abdominal ultrasonography is the preferred method to assess for intraperitoneal bleeding. An MRI would not be used. Peritoneal lavage is an alternative, but it is more invasive. An NG tube would not be helpful in diagnosis of intraabdominal bleeding.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1678

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. A patient with hypotension and an elevated temperature after working outside on a hot day is treated in the emergency department (ED). The nurse determines that discharge teaching has been effective when the patient makes which statement?

a.

I will take salt tablets when I work outdoors in the summer.

b.

I should take acetaminophen (Tylenol) if I start to feel too warm.

c.

I should drink sports drinks when working outside in hot weather.

d.

I will move to a cool environment if I notice that I am feeling confused.

ANS: C

Electrolyte solutions such as sports drinks help replace fluid and electrolytes lost when exercising in hot weather. Salt tablets are not recommended because of the risks of gastric irritation and hypernatremia. Antipyretic medications are not effective in lowering body temperature elevations caused by excessive exposure to heat. A patient who is confused is likely to have more severe hyperthermia and will be unable to remember to take appropriate action.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1682

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A 22-year-old patient who experienced a near drowning accident in a local pool, but now is awake and breathing spontaneously, is admitted for observation. Which assessment will be most important for the nurse to take during the observation period?

a.

Auscultate heart sounds.

b.

Palpate peripheral pulses.

c.

Auscultate breath sounds.

d.

Check pupil reaction to light.

ANS: C

Because pulmonary edema is a common complication after near drowning, the nurse should assess the breath sounds frequently. The other information also will be obtained by the nurse, but it is not as pertinent to the patients admission diagnosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1686

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. When planning the response to the potential use of smallpox as an agent of terrorism, the emergency department (ED) nurse manager will plan to obtain adequate quantities of

a.

vaccine.

b.

atropine.

c.

antibiotics.

d.

whole blood.

ANS: A

Smallpox infection can be prevented or ameliorated by the administration of vaccine given rapidly after exposure. The other interventions would be helpful for other agents of terrorism but not for smallpox.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension) REF: 1690

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

10. When rewarming a patient who arrived in the emergency department (ED) with a temperature of 87 F (30.6 C), which assessment indicates that the nurse should discontinue active rewarming?

a.

The patient begins to shiver.

b.

The BP decreases to 86/42 mm Hg.

c.

The patient develops atrial fibrillation.

d.

The core temperature is 94 F (34.4 C).

ANS: D

A core temperature of 89.6 F to 93.2 F (32 C to 34 C) indicates that sufficient rewarming has occurred. Dysrhythmias, hypotension, and shivering may occur during rewarming and should be treated but are not an indication to stop rewarming the patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1686

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. When assessing an older patient admitted to the emergency department (ED) with a broken arm and facial bruises, the nurse observes several additional bruises in various stages of healing. Which statement or question by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Do you feel safe in your home?

b.

You should not return to your home.

c.

Would you like to see a social worker?

d.

I need to report my concerns to the police.

ANS: A

The nurses initial response should be to further assess the patients situation. Telling the patient not to return home may be an option once further assessment is done. A social worker may be appropriate once further assessment is completed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1682

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

12. A 20-year-old patient arrives in the emergency department (ED) several hours after taking 25 to 30 acetaminophen (Tylenol) tablets. Which action will the nurse plan to take?

a.

Give N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst).

b.

Discuss the use of chelation therapy.

c.

Start oxygen using a non-rebreather mask.

d.

Have the patient drink large amounts of water.

ANS: A

N-acetylcysteine is the recommended treatment to prevent liver damage after acetaminophen overdose. The other actions might be used for other types of poisoning, but they will not be appropriate for a patient with acetaminophen poisoning.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension) REF: 1689

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. A triage nurse in a busy emergency department (ED) assesses a patient who complains of 7/10 abdominal pain and states, I had a temperature of 103.9 F (39.9 C) at home. The nurses first action should be to

a.

assess the patients current vital signs.

b.

give acetaminophen (Tylenol) per agency protocol.

c.

ask the patient to provide a clean-catch urine for urinalysis.

d.

tell the patient that it will 1 to 2 hours before being seen by the doctor.

ANS: A

The patients pain and statement about an elevated temperature indicate that the nurse should obtain vital signs before deciding how rapidly the patient should be seen by the health care provider. A urinalysis may be appropriate, but this would be done after the vital signs are taken. The nurse will not give acetaminophen before confirming a current temperature elevation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1675-1676

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. The emergency department (ED) triage nurse is assessing four victims involved in a motor vehicle collision. Which patient has the highest priority for treatment?

a.

A patient with no pedal pulses.

b.

A patient with an open femur fracture.

c.

A patient with bleeding facial lacerations.

d.

A patient with paradoxic chest movements.

ANS: D

Most immediate deaths from trauma occur because of problems with ventilation, so the patient with paradoxic chest movements should be treated first. Face and head fractures can obstruct the airway, but the patient with facial injuries only has lacerations. The other two patients also need rapid intervention but do not have airway or breathing problems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1676

OBJ: Special Questions: Multiple Patients

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

15. The following interventions are part of the emergency department (ED) protocol for a patient who has been admitted with multiple bee stings to the hands. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Remove the patients rings.

b.

Apply ice packs to both hands.

c.

Apply calamine lotion to any itching areas.

d.

Give diphenhydramine (Benadryl) 50 mg PO.

ANS: A

The patients rings should be removed first because it might not be possible to remove them if swelling develops. The other orders should also be implemented as rapidly as possible after the nurse has removed the jewelry.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1687

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. Gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal are ordered for an unconscious patient who has been admitted to the emergency department (ED) after ingesting 30 lorazepam (Ativan) tablets. Which action should the nurse plan to do first?

a.

Insert a large-bore orogastric tube.

b.

Assist with intubation of the patient.

c.

Prepare a 60-mL syringe with saline.

d.

Give first dose of activated charcoal.

ANS: B

In an unresponsive patient, intubation is done before gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration to prevent aspiration. The other actions will be implemented after intubation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1689

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. A 54-year-old patient arrives in the emergency department (ED) after exposure to powdered lime at work. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Obtain the patients vital signs.

b.

Obtain a baseline complete blood count.

c.

Decontaminate the patient by showering with water.

d.

Brush off any visible powder on the skin and clothing.

ANS: D

The initial action should be to protect staff members and decrease the patients exposure to the toxin by decontamination. Patients exposed to powdered lime should not be showered; instead any/all visible powder should be brushed off. The other actions can be done after the decontamination is completed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1690

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. An unresponsive 79-year-old is admitted to the emergency department (ED) during a summer heat wave. The patients core temperature is 105.4 F (40.8 C), blood pressure (BP) 88/50, and pulse 112. The nurse initiallywill plan to

a.

apply wet sheets and a fan to the patient.

b.

provide O2 at 6 L/min with a nasal cannula.

c.

start lactated Ringers solution at 1000 mL/hr.

d.

give acetaminophen (Tylenol) rectal suppository.

ANS: A

The priority intervention is to cool the patient. Antipyretics are not effective in decreasing temperature in heat stroke, and 100% oxygen should be given, which requires a high flow rate through a non-rebreather mask. An older patient would be at risk for developing complications such as pulmonary edema if given fluids at 1000 mL/hr.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1683

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. A patient is admitted to the emergency department (ED) after falling through the ice while ice skating. Which assessment will the nurse obtain first?

a.

Heart rate

b.

Breath sounds

c.

Body temperature

d.

Level of consciousness

ANS: B

The priority assessment relates to ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation) and how well the patient is oxygenating, so breath sounds should be assessed first. The other data will also be collected rapidly but are not as essential as the breath sounds.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1685

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. Following an earthquake, patients are triaged by emergency medical personnel and are transported to the emergency department (ED). Which patient will the nurse need to assess first?

a.

A patient with a red tag

b.

A patient with a blue tag

c.

A patient with a black tag

d.

A patient with a yellow tag

ANS: A

The red tag indicates a patient with a life-threatening injury requiring rapid treatment. The other tags indicate patients with less urgent injuries or those who are likely to die.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (knowledge) REF: 1692

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

21. Family members are in the patients room when the patient has a cardiac arrest and the staff start resuscitation measures. Which action should the nurse take next?

a.

Keep the family in the room and assign a staff member to explain the care given and answer questions.

b.

Ask the family to wait outside the patients room with a designated staff member to provide emotional support.

c.

Ask the family members about whether they would prefer to remain in the patients room or wait outside the room.

d.

Tell the family members that patients are comforted by having family members present during resuscitation efforts.

ANS: C

Although many family members and patients report benefits from family presence during resuscitation efforts, the nurses initial action should be to determine the preference of these family members. The other actions may be appropriate, but this will depend on what is learned when assessing family preferences.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1679

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A 28-year-old patient who has deep human bite wounds on the left hand is being treated in the urgent care center. Which action will the nurse plan to take?

a.

Prepare to administer rabies immune globulin (BayRab).

b.

Assist the health care provider with suturing of the bite wounds.

c.

Teach the patient the reason for the use of prophylactic antibiotics.

d.

Keep the wounds dry until the health care provider can assess them.

ANS: C

Because human bites of the hand frequently become infected, prophylactic antibiotics are usually prescribed to prevent infection. To minimize infection, deep bite wounds on the extremities are left open. Rabies immune globulin might be used after an animal bite. Initial treatment of bite wounds includes copious irrigation to help clean out contaminants and microorganisms.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1688

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. The urgent care center protocol for tick bites includes the following actions. Which action will the nurse take first when caring for a patient with a tick bite?

a.

Use tweezers to remove any remaining ticks.

b.

Check the vital signs, including temperature.

c.

Give doxycycline (Vibramycin) 100 mg orally.

d.

Obtain information about recent outdoor activities.

ANS: A

Because neurotoxic venom is released as long as the tick is attached to the patient, the initial action should be to remove any ticks using tweezers or forceps. The other actions are also appropriate, but the priority is to minimize venom release.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1697

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. When preparing to cool a patient who is to begin therapeutic hypothermia, which intervention will the nurse plan to do (select all that apply)?

a.

Assist with endotracheal intubation.

b.

Insert an indwelling urinary catheter.

c.

Begin continuous cardiac monitoring.

d.

Obtain an order to restrain the patient.

e.

Prepare to give sympathomimetic drugs.

ANS: A, B, C

Cooling can produce dysrhythmias, so the patients heart rhythm should be continuously monitored and dysrhythmias treated if necessary. Bladder catheterization and endotracheal intubation are needed during cooling. Sympathomimetic drugs tend to stimulate the heart and increase the risk for fatal dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation. Patients receiving therapeutic hypothermia are comatose or do not follow commands so restraints are not indicated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1681

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. The emergency department (ED) nurse is initiating therapeutic hypothermia in a patient who has been resuscitated after a cardiac arrest. Which actions in the hypothermia protocol can be delegated to an experienced licensed practical/vocational nurse (LPN/LVN) (select all that apply)?

a.

Continuously monitor heart rhythm.

b.

Check neurologic status every 2 hours.

c.

Place cooling blankets above and below patient.

d.

Give acetaminophen (Tylenol) 650 mg per nasogastric tube.

e.

Insert rectal temperature probe and attach to cooling blanket control panel.

ANS: C, D, E

Experienced LPN/LVNs have the education and scope of practice to implement hypothermia measures (e.g., cooling blanket, temperature probe) and administer medications under the supervision of a registered nurse (RN). Assessment of neurologic status and monitoring the heart rhythm require RN-level education and scope of practice and should be done by the RN.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 15-16

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

OTHER

1. The following four patients arrive in the emergency department (ED) after a motor vehicle collision. In which order should the nurse assess them? (Put a comma and a space between each answer choice [A, B, C, D, E].)

a. A 74-year-old with palpitations and chest pain

b. A 43-year-old complaining of 7/10 abdominal pain

c. A 21-year-old with multiple fractures of the face and jaw

d. A 37-year-old with a misaligned left leg with intact pulses

ANS:

C, A, B, D

The highest priority is to assess the 21-year-old patient for airway obstruction, which is the most life-threatening injury. The 74-year-old patient may have chest pain from cardiac ischemia and should be assessed and have diagnostic testing for this pain. The 43-year-old patient may have abdominal trauma or bleeding and should be seen next to assess circulatory status. The 37-year-old appears to have a possible fracture of the left leg and should be seen soon, but this patient has the least life-threatening injury.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 1676

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization; Multiple Patients

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

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