Chapter 7: End-of-Life Care Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 7: End-of-Life Care
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nurse cares for a dying client. Which manifestation of dying should the nurse treat first?
a. Anorexia
b. Pain
c. Nausea
d. Hair loss
ANS: B
Only symptoms that cause distress for a dying client should be treated. Such symptoms include pain, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, and agitation. These problems interfere with the clients comfort. Even when symptoms, such as anorexia or hair loss, disturb the family, they should be treated only if the client is distressed by their presence. The nurse should treat the clients pain first.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 97
KEY: End-of-life care| advance directives
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

2. A nurse plans care for a client who is nearing end of life. Which question should the nurse ask when developing this clients plan of care?
a. Is your advance directive up to date and notarized?
b. Do you want to be at home at the end of your life?
c. Would you like a physical therapist to assist you with range-of-motion activities?
d. Have your children discussed resuscitation with your health care provider?
ANS: B
When developing a plan of care for a dying client, consideration should be given for where the client wants to die. Advance directives do not need to be notarized. A physical therapist would not be involved in end-of-life care. The client should discuss resuscitation with the health care provider and children; do-not-resuscitate status should be the clients decision, not the familys decision.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 94
KEY: End-of-life care| advance directives
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

3. A nurse is caring for a client who has lung cancer and is dying. Which prescription should the nurse question?
a. Morphine 10 mg sublingual every 6 hours PRN for pain level greater than 5
b. Albuterol (Proventil) metered dose inhaler every 4 hours PRN for wheezes
c. Atropine solution 1% sublingual every 4 hours PRN for excessive oral secretions
d. Sodium biphosphate (Fleet) enema once a day PRN for impacted stool
ANS: A
Pain medications should be scheduled around the clock to maintain comfort and prevent reoccurrence of pain. The other medications are appropriate for this client.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 96
KEY: End-of-life care| pharmacologic pain management
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

4. A client tells the nurse that, even though it has been 4 months since her sisters death, she frequently finds herself crying uncontrollably. How should the nurse respond?
a. Most people move on within a few months. You should see a grief counselor.
b. Whenever you start to cry, distract yourself from thoughts of your sister.
c. You should try not to cry. Im sure your sister is in a better place now.
d. Your feelings are completely normal and may continue for a long time.
ANS: D
Frequent crying is not an abnormal response. The nurse should let the client know that this is normal and okay. Although the client may benefit from talking with a grief counselor, it is not unusual for her to still be grieving after a few months. The other responses are not as therapeutic because they justify or minimize the clients response.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 101
KEY: End-of-life care| coping MSC: Integrated Process: Caring

5. After teaching a client about advance directives, a nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which statement indicates the client correctly understands the teaching?
a. An advance directive will keep my children from selling my home when Im old.
b. An advance directive will be completed as soon as Im incapacitated and cant think for myself.
c. An advance directive will specify what I want done when I can no longer make decisions about health care.
d. An advance directive will allow me to keep my money out of the reach of my family.
ANS: C
An advance directive is a written document prepared by a competent individual that specifies what, if any, extraordinary actions a person would want taken when he or she can no longer make decisions about personal health care. It does not address issues such as the clients residence or financial matters.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 92
KEY: End-of-life care| advance directives
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

6. A nurse teaches a client who is considering being admitted to hospice. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?
a. Hospice admission has specific criteria. You may not be a viable candidate, so we will look at alternative plans for your discharge.
b. Hospice care focuses on a holistic approach to health care. It is designed not to hasten death, but rather to relieve symptoms.
c. Hospice care will not help with your symptoms of depression. I will refer you to the facilitys counseling services instead.
d. You seem to be experiencing some difficulty with this stage of the grieving process. Lets talk about your feelings.
ANS: B
As both a philosophy and a system of care, hospice care uses an interdisciplinary approach to assess and address the holistic needs of clients and families to facilitate quality of life and a peaceful death. This holistic approach neither hastens nor postpones death but provides relief of symptoms experienced by the dying client.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 94
KEY: End-of-life care| palliative/hospice care
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

7. A nurse is caring for a dying client. The clients spouse states, I think he is choking to death. How should the nurse respond?
a. Do not worry. The choking sound is normal during the dying process.
b. I will administer more morphine to keep your husband comfortable.
c. I can ask the respiratory therapist to suction secretions out through his nose.
d. I will have another nurse assist me to turn your husband on his side.
ANS: D
The choking sound or death rattle is common in dying clients. The nurse should acknowledge the spouses concerns and provide interventions that will reduce the choking sounds. Repositioning the client onto one side with a towel under the mouth to collect secretions is the best intervention. The nurse should not minimize the spouses concerns. Morphine will assist with comfort but will not decrease the choking sounds. Nasotracheal suctioning is not appropriate in a dying client.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 99 KEY: End-of-life care
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

8. The nurse is teaching a family member about various types of complementary therapies that might be effective for relieving the dying clients anxiety and restlessness. Which statement made by the family member indicates understanding of the nurses teaching?
a. Maybe we should just hire an around-the-clock sitter to stay with Grandmother.
b. I have some of her favorite hymns on a CD that I could bring for music therapy.
c. I dont think that shell need pain medication along with her herbal treatments.
d. I will burn therapeutic incense in the room so we can stop the anxiety pills.
ANS: B
Music therapy is a complementary therapy that may produce relaxation by quieting the mind and removing a clients inner restlessness. Hiring an around-the-clock sitter does not demonstrate that the clients family understands complementary therapies. Complementary therapies are used in conjunction with traditional therapy. Complementary therapy would not replace pain or anxiety medication but may help decrease the need for these medications.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 100
KEY: End-of-life care| nonpharmacologic pain management
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

9. A nurse is caring for a terminally ill client who has just died in a hospital setting with family members at the bedside. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Call for emergency assistance so that resuscitation procedures can begin.
b. Ask family members if they would like to spend time alone with the client.
c. Ensure that a death certificate has been completed by the physician.
d. Request family members to prepare the clients body for the funeral home.
ANS: B
Before moving the clients body to the funeral home, the nurse should ask family members if they would like to be alone with the client. Emergency assistance will not be necessary. Although it is important to ensure that a death certificate has been completed before the client is moved to the mortuary, the nurse first should ask family members if they would like to be alone with the client. The clients family should not be expected to prepare the body for the funeral home.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 102
KEY: End-of-life care| postmortem care MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

10. A nurse assesses a client who is dying. Which manifestation of a dying client should the nurse assess to determine whether the client is near death?
a. Level of consciousness
b. Respiratory rate
c. Bowel sounds
d. Pain level on a 0-to-10 scale
ANS: B
Although all of these assessments should be performed during the dying process, periods of apnea and Cheyne-Strokes respirations indicate death is near. As peripheral circulation decreases, the clients level of consciousness and bowel sounds decrease, and the client would be unable to provide a numeric number on a pain scale. Even with these other symptoms, the nurse should continue to assess respiratory rate throughout the dying process. As the rate drops significantly and breathing becomes agonal, death is near.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 95 KEY: End-of-life care
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. A nurse is caring for a client who is terminally ill. The clients spouse states, I am concerned because he does not want to eat. How should the nurse respond?
a. Let him know that food is available if he wants it, but do not insist that he eat.
b. A feeding tube can be placed in the nose to provide important nutrients.
c. Force him to eat even if he does not feel hungry, or he will die sooner.
d. He is getting all the nutrients he needs through his intravenous catheter.
ANS: A
When family members understand that the client is not suffering from hunger and is not starving to death, they may allow the client to determine when, what, or if to eat. Often, as death approaches, metabolic needs decrease and clients do not feel the sensation of hunger. Forcing them to eat frustrates the client and the family.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 96
KEY: End-of-life care| nutrition MSC: Integrated Process: Caring

12. A nurse discusses inpatient hospice with a client and the clients family. A family member expresses concern that her loved one will receive only custodial care. How should the nurse respond?
a. The goal of palliative care is to provide the greatest degree of comfort possible and help the dying person enjoy whatever time is left.
b. Palliative care will release you from the burden of having to care for someone in the home. It does not mean that curative treatment will stop.
c. A palliative care facility is like a nursing home and costs less than a hospital because only pain medications are given.
d. Your relative is unaware of her surroundings and will not notice the difference between her home and a palliative care facility.
ANS: A
Palliative care provides an increased level of personal care designed to manage symptom distress. The focus is on pain control and helping the relative die with dignity.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 94
KEY: End-of-life care| palliative/hospice care
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring NOT: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. An intensive care nurse discusses withdrawal of care with a clients family. The family expresses concerns related to discontinuation of therapy. How should the nurse respond?
a. I understand your concerns, but in this state, discontinuation of care is not a form of active euthanasia.
b. You will need to talk to the provider because I am not legally allowed to participate in the withdrawal of life support.
c. I realize this is a difficult decision. Discontinuation of therapy will allow the client to die a natural death.
d. There is no need to worry. Most religious organizations support the clients decision to stop medical treatment.
ANS: C
The nurse should validate the familys concerns and provide accurate information about the discontinuation of therapy. The other statements address specific issues related to the withdrawal of care but do not provide appropriate information about their purpose. If the clients family asks for specific information about euthanasia, legal, or religious issues, the nurse should provide unbiased information about these topics.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 103
KEY: End-of-life care| withdrawal of care
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring NOT: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. A hospice nurse is caring for a variety of clients who are dying. Which end-of-life and death ritual is paired with the correct religion?
a. Roman Catholic Autopsies are not allowed except under special circumstances.
b. Christian Upon death, a religious leader should perform rituals of bathing and wrapping the body in cloth.
c. Judaism A person who is extremely ill and dying should not be left alone.
d. Islam An ill or dying person should receive the Sacrament of the Sick.
ANS: C
According to Jewish law, a person who is extremely ill or dying should not be left alone. Orthodox Jews do not allow autopsies except under special circumstances. The Islamic faith requires a religious leader to perform rituals of bathing and wrapping the body in cloth upon death. A Catholic priest performs the Sacrament of the Sick for ill or dying people.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 100
KEY: End-of-life care| religion/spirituality
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A hospice nurse is caring for a dying client and her family members. Which interventions should the nurse implement? (Select all that apply.)
a. Teach family members about physical signs of impending death.
b. Encourage the management of adverse symptoms.
c. Assist family members by offering an explanation for their loss.
d. Encourage reminiscence by both client and family members.
e. Avoid spirituality because the clients and the nurses beliefs may not be congruent.
ANS: A, B, D
The nurse should teach family members about the physical signs of death, because family members often become upset when they see physiologic changes in their loved one. Palliative care includes management of symptoms so that the peaceful death of the client is facilitated. Reminiscence will help both the client and family members cope with the dying process. The nurse is not expected to explain why this is happening to the familys loved one. The nurse can encourage spirituality if the client is agreeable, regardless of whether the clients religion is the same.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 96 KEY: End-of-life care
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

2. A nurse admits an older adult client to the hospital. Which criterion should the nurse use to determine if the client can make his own medical decisions? (Select all that apply.)
a. Can communicate his treatment preferences
b. Is able to read and write at an eighth-grade level
c. Is oriented enough to understand information provided
d. Can evaluate and deliberate information
e. Has completed an advance directive
ANS: A, C, D
To have decision-making ability, a person must be able to perform three tasks: receive information (but not necessarily oriented 4); evaluate, deliberate, and mentally manipulate information; and communicate a treatment preference. The client does not have to read or write at a specific level. Education can be provided at the clients level so that he can make the necessary decisions. The client does not need to complete an advance directive to make his own medical decisions. An advance directive will be necessary if he wants to designate someone to make medical decisions when he is unable to.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 92
KEY: Advance directives
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

3. A hospice nurse plans care for a client who is experiencing pain. Which complementary therapies should the nurse incorporate in this clients pain management plan? (Select all that apply.)
a. Play music that the client enjoys.
b. Massage tissue that is tender from radiation therapy.
c. Rub lavender lotion on the clients feet.
d. Ambulate the client in the hall twice a day.
e. Administer intravenous morphine.
ANS: A, C
Complementary therapies for pain management include massage therapy, music therapy, Therapeutic Touch, and aromatherapy. Nurses should not massage over sites of tissue damage from radiation therapy. Ambulation and intravenous morphine are not complementary therapies for pain management.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 97
KEY: Advance directives
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

4. A nurse teaches a clients family members about signs and symptoms of approaching death. Which manifestations should the nurse include in this teaching? (Select all that apply.)
a. Warm and flushed extremities
b. Long periods of insomnia
c. Increased respiratory rate
d. Decreased appetite
e. Congestion and gurgling
ANS: D, E
Common physical signs and symptoms of approaching death including coolness of extremities, increased sleeping, irregular and slowed breathing rate, a decrease in fluid and food intake, congestion and gurgling, incontinence, disorientation, and restlessness.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 96 KEY: End-of-life care
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Leave a Reply