Chapter 7- Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Care Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

In the development of a literature review, the most effective source of information for nursing research is which of the following?

A)

New England Journal of Medicine

B)

Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature

C)

Journal of Nursing Research

D)

American Journal of Nursing

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Indexes such as the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Nursing Index, Index Medicus, Nursing Studies Index, MedLine, and Nursing Research Index are valuable in locating nursing-based literature and research studies.

2.

When did evidenced-based practice become an important component of the delivery of nursing care?

A)

The early 1800s

B)

The early 1900s

C)

The late 1900s

D)

The early 2000s

Ans:

D

Feedback:

In the early years of the 21st century, a heightened focus on evidence-based practice has developed, which relies on research findings to support nursing practice.

3.

Why is it important for the findings of a research study to be disseminated? Select all that apply.

A)

So that clinical application can occur

B)

To allow the nurse researcher to receive notoriety for the findings

C)

In order for research replication by other nurses to take place

D)

Because graduate-level nurses must conduct a specific number of research studies to maintain nursing licensure

E)

To strengthen and validate conclusions by similar findings in more than one research study

Ans:

A, C, E

Feedback:

The study and its findings must be dispersed in order to validate the findings through clinical practice and through replication of the study; hopefully, with similar findings. There is not a specified number of studies required for graduate-level nurses to conduct, and the nurse researcher should never conduct a study for the purpose of being recognized.

4.

The nurse researcher is aware that the type of variable that can be manipulated in a study is which type of variable?

A)

Dependent

B)

Independent

C)

Quantitative

D)

Qualitative

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The independent variable is presumed to have an effect on the dependent variable. It may be manipulated if the researcher is doing an experimental study; in a non-experimental study, it is assumed to have occurred naturally before or during the study.

5.

The director of nurses (DON) in a long-term care facility has noticed an increased number of urinary tract infections (UTIs) on the east wing of the facility, and would like the infection control nurse to investigate this problem. What is the best problem statement for this study?

A)

Is there a relationship between the personnel caring for specific patients and whether or not these patients developed UTIs?

B)

Is there an increase in the number of UTIs on the east wing of the facility?

C)

Does the east wing have a greater number of UTIs than the west wing of the facility?

D)

What is the patient census on the east wing as opposed to the other wings of the facility?

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The problem statement in a research study identifies the direction that a research project will take. The statement should be clear and unambiguous, express a relationship between two or more variables, identify the population to be studied, and encourage empiric testing.

6.

A nursing researcher presents the findings of his current study at a School of Nursings research conference. While there, he speaks with another nurse researcher interested in similar topics and the two decide to discuss forming a partnership for further research projects. What is this type of interaction an example of?

A)

Hypothesizing

B)

Identifying variables

C)

Investigating foreground questions

D)

Networking

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Networking is a way to meet other nurses with similar interests and is a good way to disseminate and to expand ones knowledge, as well as to meet with other professional nurses.

7.

What type of research study would a hospital conduct to determine additional services the community would like to see offered by the facility?

A)

Quantitative

B)

Qualitative

C)

Ordinal

D)

Interval

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Quantitative researchers tend to use deductive reasoning, logic, and measurable attributes of human experience, whereas qualitative researchers tend to use dynamic, individual aspects of the human experience in a holistic approach. Ordinal and interval refers to types of variables.

8.

What are the four properties identified by Diers that comprise the holistic perspective of nursing research?

A)

The focus of nursing research must be on a variance that makes a difference in improving patient care.

B)

Nursing research has the potential for contributing to the development of theory and the body of scientific nursing knowledge.

C)

A research problem is a nursing research problem when nurses have access to and control over the phenomena being studied.

D)

A nurse interested in research must have an inquisitive, curious, and questioning mind.

E)

A nurse interested in research must be a graduate-level nurse to be able to adequately perform nursing research.

Ans:

A, B, C, D

Feedback:

Nursing is concerned with the whole person, which describes holistic nursing. When nurses conduct research, they tend to focus on the physiologic, psychological, sociologic, cultural, and economic factors that affect a person. They view the situation from a nursing perspective and ask questions about what they see.

9.

When the nurse researcher informs the participant that his or her identity will not be linked with the information that is collected, the researcher is ensuring the participants

A)

Anonymity

B)

Protection from harm

C)

Ability to withdraw

D)

Confidentiality

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Confidentiality ensures that the subjects identities will not be linked with the information they provide and will not be publicly divulged.

10.

The role of the institutional review boards for research studies is to

A)

Determine the worthiness of a research study

B)

Document the costs of the study

C)

Publish the research study

D)

Protect the rights of human subjects

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Research involving human subjects also needs approval by institutional review boards before implementation.

11.

A well-constructed problem statement formulated at the beginning of a nursing research study should

A)

Incorporate nursing theory

B)

Include significant references

C)

Identify benefits of the study

D)

Indicate the population

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The problem statement should be clear and unambiguous, express a relationship between two or more variables, identify) the population to be studied, and encourage empiric testing.

12.

A nursing instructor would like to study the effect peer tutoring has on student success. What is the independent variable?

A)

Nursing student

B)

Nursing education

C)

Peer tutoring

D)

Student success

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The independent variable is the presumed cause or influence on the dependent variable.

13.

Following the identification of a researchable problem, the nurse must

A)

Obtain a list of possible outcomes

B)

Evaluate the number of ways to collect data

C)

Select literature relevant to the problem

D)

Determine a source appropriate to collect data

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Literature review is the process of selecting published materials that have relevance to the potential research.

14.

A nurse researcher is collecting nominal data. What type of research is being conducted?

A)

Quantitative research

B)

Qualitative research

C)

Interval research

D)

Experimental research

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Quantitative research involves the systematic collection of numeric information. Nominal data is of a numeric nature.

15.

The nurse researcher would like to gather data on the attitudes of young adults on spirituality and healthcare. The most effective form of research on this topic is

A)

Quantitative research

B)

Methodologic survey

C)

A Delphi study

D)

Qualitative research

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Attitudes on spirituality and healthcare require the nurse to interview patients or informants to obtain qualitative research. Qualitative research involves the systematic collection and analysis of more subjective narrative materials using procedures in which there tends to be a minimum of researcher-imposed control.

16.

The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) was established following a study in 1983. The centers purpose is to

A)

Advance the level of nursing research funding

B)

Investigate and expand nursing theory

C)

Promote research for health promotion

D)

Evaluate the effect of current research

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The National Institute of Nursing Research was established under the National Institutes of Health to place nursing securely in the sphere of scientific investigation and to support research and training into patient care, health promotion, disease prevention, and the mitigation of the effects of acute and chronic disabilities.

17.

From 1900 to 1940, research in nursing focused on:

A)

Cost-effectiveness of nursing care

B)

Improving patient care outcomes

C)

Nursing education and teaching

D)

Increasing workforce in the nursing profession

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Between 1900 and 1940, research in nursing centered on education, methods of teaching, and methods of evaluating how nurses learned.

18.

Who is considered to be the first nursing researcher?

A)

Florence Nightingale

B)

Dorothea Dix

C)

Clara Barton

D)

Lillian Wald

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Nursing research has been an integral part of the profession since Florence Nightingale documented the care of soldiers in the Crimean War.

19.

How are the first stages of the nursing process and nursing research linked?

A)

They will answer a posed question.

B)

Each begins with goal development.

C)

The nurse assesses problems initially.

D)

There is a period of evaluation.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The first step for the practicing nurse is to assess a problem; for the researcher, the step is to recognize the general problem area.

20.

What is a systematic inquiry into the problems encountered in nursing practice and into the modalities of patient care?

A)

Nursing research

B)

Evidence-based practice

C)

Outcome criteria

D)

Scientific inquiry

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Nursing research is defined as a systematic inquiry into the problems encountered in nursing practice and into the modalities of patient care, such as support and comfort, prevention of trauma, promotion of recovery, health education, health appraisal, and coordination of healthcare. Evidence-based practice supports nursing care given to patients by emphasizing decision making based on the best available evidence and the use of outcome studies to guide decisions.

21.

Evidence-based care emphasizes decision making based on the best available evidence and

A)

Use of outcome studies to guide decisions

B)

Evaluation by experts to direct specialty areas

C)

Care based on pathophysiologic factors

D)

Cost efficiency of treatment models

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Evidence-based care emphasizes decision making based on the best available evidence and the use of outcome studies to guide decisions.

22.

Nursing research is linked most closely to

A)

Propositions

B)

Outcome measures

C)

Treatments

D)

Nursing process

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Many similarities are found between the formalized research process and the nursing process format that is an integral part of nursing education.

23.

The question, Does handwashing significantly lower the rate of infection in hospitalized patients?, is an example of what research component?

A)

Hypothesis

B)

Problem statement

C)

Conclusion

D)

Implication for the future

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Research is defined as a formalized process of systematic investigation designed to test a research question or hypothesis and draw conclusions from collected data.

24.

In what way can a nurse discriminate strong research from poor research?

A)

By conducting the research

B)

Through author dialogue

C)

By critiquing the study

D)

Through the nurses own informal investigation

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Nurses must have a working knowledge of research methods and a beginning ability to read for application and to critique research.

25.

One of the primary focuses of nursing research is to

A)

Quantify outcomes related to patients

B)

Determine outcomes for patients

C)

Generate knowledge to guide practice

D)

Prevent further disease and death

Ans:

C

Feedback:

One of the major reasons for conducting research is to expand a professions knowledge base.

26.

What nursing activity forms the bridge between theory and practice?

A)

Theoretic writing

B)

Evidence-based research

C)

Patient-focused care

D)

Case management

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Evidence-based research is translational research that forms the bridge between theory and practice.

27.

Which of the following terms describes or explains the nursing model?

A)

Conceptual framework

B)

Theory

C)

Construct

D)

Proposition

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The nursing model or theory acts as a guide to identify and study systematically the logical relationships between variables, thus supporting nursing care.

28.

A conceptual framework is defined as

A)

An explanation of nursing and nursing practice

B)

A set of phenomena and related abstractions

C)

A foundation for nursing skills and care

D)

A set of concepts and propositions

Ans:

D

Feedback:

A conceptual framework or model is defined as a set of concepts and the propositions that integrate them into a meaningful configuration.

29.

Of the following, which best explains the importance of theoretic frameworks?

A)

Theoretic frameworks guide physiologic nursing care

B)

Theoretic frameworks guide psychosocial nursing care

C)

Theoretic frameworks advance nursing knowledge and practice

D)

Theoretic frameworks advance the ethical aspects of practice

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Theoretic frameworks are important to the advancement of nursing knowledge and professional practice.

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