Chapter 8: Minerals Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 8: Minerals
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The mineral present in the body in the greatest amount is
a. sodium.
b. calcium.
c. iron.
d. chloride.
ANS: B
Calcium is present in the greatest amount in the body and functions in bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, and metabolic reactions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 128 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. The factors most responsible for regulating calcium absorption from food are
a. activity and diet.
b. dietary intake and vitamin D hormone.
c. metabolic rate and cardiovascular function.
d. vitamin D hormone, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone.
ANS: D
The absorption of dietary calcium depends on the interaction of three hormonesvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and calcitoninthat directly control absorption along with indirect metabolic stimuli from the estrogen hormones.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 130 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. Binding agents such as oxalic acid and phytic acid inhibit absorption of
a. potassium.
b. sodium.
c. sulfur.
d. calcium.
ANS: D
Oxalic acid is a compound found in some plants such as spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard, beet greens, and certain other vegetables and nuts that form insoluble salts with calcium, called oxalates.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 132-133 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4. The person most at risk for developing osteoporosis is a
a. 25-year-old woman who plays tennis 3 times a week.
b. 35-year-old woman who has sustained multiple trauma and is bedridden.
c. 55-year-old woman who exercises 3 times a week and consumes adequate milk and dairy products at least 3 times a day.
d. 14-year-old girl who runs track and drink 4 glasses of milk daily.
ANS: B
Osteoporosis is not a primary calcium deficiency disease, but it does result from a combination of factors that create chronic calcium deficiency. These factors include inadequate intake, poor intestinal absorption connected with hormones controlling calcium absorption and metabolism, and lack of exercise that stimulates muscle insertion action on bones and determines the strength, shape, and mass of bone. The 35-year-old woman who is bedridden is at a higher risk for osteoporosis than the others who are active.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 131
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

5. An example of a food that is a good source of calcium is
a. kidney beans.
b. whole-grain bread.
c. yogurt.
d. spinach.
ANS: C
Good sources of calcium include milk and milk products, including cheese, yogurt, and ice cream.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 132-133 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. An example of a breakfast high in calcium is
a. scrambled eggs and toast.
b. pancakes and syrup.
c. sausage biscuit.
d. cereal and milk.
ANS: D
Cereal and milk provide good sources of calcium because calcium-rich foods include milk and milk products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 132-133 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. The functions of energy metabolism and acid-base balance are regulated by
a. sodium.
b. iron.
c. potassium.
d. phosphorus.
ANS: D
The functions of phosphorus include bone and teeth formation, energy metabolism, and acid-base balance.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 132-133 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

8. Two foods that are most important in bone formation are
a. margarine and apples.
b. milk and yogurt.
c. bread and red meat.
d. cereal and yogurt.
ANS: B
Milk and yogurt are good sources of calcium and phosphorus which both play a role in bone-forming tissue.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 132-133|135 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

9. An important function of sodium is
a. energy metabolism.
b. water balance.
c. tooth formation.
d. nerve conduction.
ANS: B
Sodium functions in water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, and nutrient absorption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 135-136 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

10. Most of the bodys sodium is found in
a. plasma.
b. water outside cells.
c. water inside cells.
d. cerebrospinal fluid.
ANS: B
Sodium is the major guardian of the bodys water outside the cell (extracellular), which helps prevent dehydration.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 135-136 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. Processed foods supply a large percent of what mineral?
a. manganese
b. magnesium
c. sodium
d. iron
ANS: C
Food manufacturers add significant amounts of salt and other sodium compounds to processed foods.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 136-137 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

12. The major mineral in water inside cells is
a. sodium.
b. chloride.
c. potassium.
d. magnesium.
ANS: C
Potassium is the major electrolyte controlling the water inside the cell (intracellular fluid).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 137 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

13. Of the foods below, the one providing the best source of potassium is
a. spinach.
b. lemonade.
c. processed cheese crackers.
d. french fries.
ANS: A
The richest dietary sources of potassium are unprocessed foods, including oranges and bananas; vegetables such as broccoli and leafy green vegetables; fresh meats; whole grains; and milk products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 137-138 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

14. The two minerals that occur in the water outside cells and regulate water balance are
a. calcium and potassium.
b. sodium and chloride.
c. phosphorus and magnesium.
d. iron and zinc.
ANS: B
Sodium and chloride are the two minerals found in the water outside cells; both help control body-water balance.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 135|138 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15. Chloride is incorporated into
a. pancreatic secretions.
b. intestinal secretions.
c. gastric secretions.
d. skeletal tissue.
ANS: C
Chloride is a key element in the hydrochloric acid secreted in gastric juices.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 138 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

16. An important function of sulfur in the body is
a. building connective tissue.
b. tooth formation.
c. fat formation.
d. acid-base balance.
ANS: A
Sulfur is necessary for collagen synthesis and is important in building connective tissue. Sulfur is also involved in the structure of hair, skin, and nails; general metabolic functions; and vitamin structure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 140 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

17. A food that enhances nonheme iron absorption is
a. orange juice.
b. white toast.
c. olive oil.
d. sausage.
ANS: A
Vitamin C and moderate amounts of lean meat help enhance the absorption and availability of nonheme iron. Orange juice is a good source of vitamin C.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 144 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

18. Which of the following foods would be most important to assist with thyroxine synthesis?
a. iodized table salt
b. fresh green lettuce
c. apple
d. yogurt
ANS: A
Iodized table salt contains iodine, which helps synthesize thyroxine. Thyroxine-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to take up more iodine for thyroxine synthesis when the blood level of thyroxine falls below normal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 146 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

19. The main dietary source of iodine is
a. seafood.
b. legumes.
c. iodized table salt.
d. fortified foods.
ANS: C
Iodized table salt is the major reliable source of iodine. The amount of iodine in natural food varies depending on the content of the soil. Seafood is another good source of iodine, but is less reliable because most people do not eat seafood daily.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 146 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

20. Copper has a metabolic association with
a. silicon.
b. chromium.
c. iron.
d. molybdenum.
ANS: C
Copper is frequently called the iron twin because copper and iron are metabolized in much the same way and both are components of cell enzymes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 149 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

21. Chromium is a component of the factor that facilitates the action of insulin. This factor is called
a. factor III.
b. antipernicious factor.
c. glucogenic factor.
d. glucose tolerance factor.
ANS: D
Chromium functions as an essential component of the organic complex glucose tolerance factor, which stimulates the action of insulin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 150-151 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

22. A significant food source of selenium is
a. shrimp.
b. processed snacks.
c. canned fruit.
d. a fresh apple.
ANS: A
Significant sources of selenium include seafood, kidney, liver; meats and whole grains provide some selenium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 148 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

23. The main function of fluoride is to
a. provide structural support.
b. prevent anemia.
c. prevent dental caries.
d. slow aging.
ANS: C
The main function of fluoride is to prevent dental caries. Fluoride strengthens the ability of the tooth structure to withstand the erosive effect of bacterial acids.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 149 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

24. Trace minerals are called trace because they are
a. not as important as the other minerals.
b. found in small quantities in food sources.
c. found in small quantities in the body.
d. difficult to detect in the body.
ANS: C
Trace elements occur in very small amounts in the body. Trace elements are defined as those having a required intake of less than 100 mg/day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 129 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

25. Minerals are
a. organic compounds.
b. elements.
c. made by plants.
d. liquid at room temperature.
ANS: B
Minerals are chemical elements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 128 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

26. An example of a lunch high in potassium is a
a. hamburger on a bun with sliced tomatoes.
b. grilled cheese sandwich and pretzels.
c. pasta salad and hard roll.
d. bagel with cream cheese and dill pickle.
ANS: A
Rich food sources of potassium include unprocessed foods, including fruits such as oranges and bananas; vegetables such as broccoli and leafy greens; fresh meats; whole grains; and milk products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 137-138 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

27. Potassium deficiency may be caused by
a. allergies.
b. food poisoning.
c. psychological stress.
d. myocardial infarction.
ANS: B
Potassium deficiency is more likely to develop with prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, use of diuretic drugs, severe malnutrition, or surgery.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 137
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

28. Amino acids that contain sulfur are
a. phenylalanine and calcium.
b. threonine and tyrosine.
c. methionine and cystine.
d. leucine and tryptophan.
ANS: C
The amino acids methionine and cystine contain sulfur.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 140 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

29. The trace element the body needs to produce antibodies, convert carotene to vitamin A, and form hemoglobin is
a. copper.
b. iron.
c. magnesium.
d. zinc.
ANS: B
Iron is necessary for hemoglobin synthesis, proper glucose metabolism in the cell, antibody production, drug detoxification in the liver, collagen and purine synthesis, and conversion of carotene to vitamin A.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 140 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

30. A significant source of phosphorus would be provided by
a. lean broiled beef.
b. an apple.
c. chocolate.
d. lemonade.
ANS: A
The best sources of phosphorus are high-protein foods, including milk and milk products, meat, fish, and eggs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 135 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

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